Evolution of stellar magnetic field during gravitationalcollapse

Kryvdyk V.

During gravitational collapse the radius of star decreases significantly and its magnetic field grows, reaching an extreme value at the final stage of collapse. The variable magnetic field generates a vortex electric field, which increases rapidly during the collapse with a decrease of the stellar radius. This field accelerates the charged particles, forming the magnetosphere around of collapsing star. This leads to the fact that already at the early stages of collapse, long before the collapse and formation of objects such as white dwarfs, neutron stars or black holes, collapsing star has a strong magnetic field and powerful magnetosphere, consisting of the relativistic charged particles, which generate the nonthermal electromagnetic radiation, moving in the magnetic field. This radiation can be a signal that the star is at the last stage of its evolution (collapse). This signal can be observed by means of modern gamma, X-ray and radio telescopes.

Latutude-time aspects of solar magnetic cycle

E.V. Miletsky, V.G. Ivanov, Yu. A. Nagovitsyn

A review of various aspects of cyclic latitude-time evolution of the photospheric local (sunspot) and large-scale (background) solar magnetic fields is presented.
It is shown that in the latitude range ±40° the form of latitude distribution of the solar magnetic fields can be described by the normal law with its dispersion being proportional to the magnitude of the emergent magnetic flux.
Main regularities of equator- and polar-ward latitude drifts of the magnetic fields in the 11-year solar activity cycle are analyzed. Their importance for understanding mechanisms of the 11-year and other cycles of solar activity is pointed out.
The possibility of reconstructing latitude-time distribution of the solar magnetic field in the past is demonstrated.

Magnetic field of cosmic strings

L.V. Zadorozhna, B.I. Hnatyk, Yu.A. Sitenko

Cosmic strings are relicts of the early Universe which can be formed during the phase transitions of fields with spontaneously broken symmetry [1]. Cosmic strings are topologically stable, one-dimensional defects in the vacuum, their existence finds support in modern superstrings theories, both in compactification models and in theories with extended additional dimensions [2],[3].
Strings can hold currents, effectively become electrically superconducting wires of astrophysical dimensions. Superconducting cosmic strings can serve as powerful sources of nonthermal radiation in wide energy range [4],[5]. Mechanisms of radiation are synchrotron, self-Compton and inverse-Compton on CMB photons radiation of electrons accelerated by bow shock wave, created by magnetosphere of relativistically moving string in intergalactic medium (IGM). Calculations of expected flux of radiation show that for typical parameters of strings and IGM existing detectors can see loops at the average distance to the strings.
We also study a possibility of generating a magnetic field around a GUT scale cosmic string in the early Universe after the deconfinement-confinement phase transition. A circular current and a magnetic field, which is directed along the string, are induced around the string in the vacuum of the quantized massive scalar field [6]. We considered a GUT scale cosmic string in the vacuum of pseudoscalar matter consisting of charged pions. We study the interaction between the magnetic flux tube, surrounding the string, – the magnetosphere of the string – with cosmic plasma in the early Universe. The possibility of magnetization of cosmic plasma as a result of its interaction with the magnetic field of the string is analyzed.
[1] T.W.B. Kibble, J. Phys. A 9, 1387 (1976).
[2] E. Witten, Phys.Lett. B 153, 243 (1985).
[3] S. Sarangi, S.H.H. Tye, Phys. Lett. B 536, 185 (2002).
[4] L.V. Zadorozhna, B.I. Hnatyk, Ukr. J. Phys. 54, 1044, (2009).
[5] L.V. Zadorozhna, B.I. Hnatyk, Ukr. J. Phys. 54, 1152, (2009).
[6] Yu.A. Sitenko, N.D. Vlasii, Class.Quant.Grav. 26, 195009, (2009).

Is the stellar wind of massive stars magnetized?

N.R. Ikhsanov, N.G. Beskrovnaya

We report a new method of independent estimation of the lower limit to the magnetic field strength in the wind of massive stars. We show that the spin evolution of X-ray pulsars in High Mass X-ray Binaries strongly depends on the properties of their massive component stellar wind (such as the magnetic field strength, homogeneity, and spatial distribution). Our analysis favors a situation in which the wind of massive stars is magnetized, clumpy and more dense at the equatorial plane. Some of its properties resemble those of the solar wind which might be an indication of the similar origin.

Structure of the solar general magnetic field and its magnetospheric manifestations in the activity cycles Nos. 23 and 24

T. E. Valchuk, and Iu. S. Zagainova

The topology of solar magnetic fields has undergone dynamic changes over the period of 22 years. During this time, the dipole general magnetic field of the Sun (GMF) completed transformation and reverted to its original state. We know that this periodic process covers two 11-year cycles of solar activity: an even and an odd one. There are many publications devoted to the even/odd cycle pairs, their common features and differences, particularities of the epochs of maximum and minimum, cyclic variability of heliophysical characteristics, etc. The most interesting studies involve the magnetospheric effects of active solar phenomena, such as solar flares, coronal mass ejections and filaments, proton events, migration of active longitudes, etc., which characterize the solar-terrestrial interactions in the even and odd cycles in general and in their particular phases: minimum, rise phase, maximum, and decline phase. Variations in stochastic processes in the solar plasma from the photosphere to the heliosphere and solar wind are strictly controlled by the solar periodicity. However, the progress achieved in recording various manifestations of solar activity did not increase the accuracy of the solar activity forecast.
We believe that the geomagnetic effects observed in the periods of quadrupole GMF differ from those recorded in the periods of its more frequent quasi-dipole structure. The characteristics of solar active events and their manifestations in the Earth magnetosphere have been compared with regard to the GMF configuration using cycles 23 and 24 by way of example. Observational data have been used to consider the reconstruction of GMF. We have isolated periods during the activity cycles, in which the magnetic field was quadrupole and the most intensive geoeffective events were observed. Numerical estimates of SA realizations have been obtained taking into account the quasi-dipole and quadrupole GMF structure and their geomagnetic manifestations.

Origin and appearance of superpropellers

N.G. Beskrovnaya, N.R. Ikhsanov, V.Y. Kim

The origin and appearance of strongly magnetized fast rotating white dwarfs (superpropellers) are discussed. We address an analysis of accretion-driven spin-up of a magnetized white dwarf in a close binary system. We show that the magnetic field of the white dwarf during this process has been screened by the accreted material and re-generated due to the field diffusion through the accreted material after it. A superpropeller can be formed within this scenario if the time of the field re-emerging is sufficiently small, which is expected for the massive white dwarfs. A white dwarf in the superpropeller state can be distinguished by a peculiar flaring activity in the optical and UV. The basic parameters of the flaring activity are briefly discussed.

Accretion onto white dwarfs with strong and complex magnetic fields: Implications for magnetic cataclysmic variable stars

D.V. Bisikalo, A.G. Zhilkin, P.A. Mason

We present the results of 3D MHD calculations of stream accretion in cataclysmic variable stars for which the white dwarf primary star possesses a strong and complex magnetic field. Observations indicate that white dwarfs in some polars possess complex (non-dipolar) magnetic fields. In our model we suppose that the proper magnetic field of the accretor is a superposition of aligned dipole and quadrupole components. It is shown that existence of the strong quadrupole component of the magnetic field leads to significant complications of the accretion characteristics. In particular, the accretion stream configuration and the number and location of accretion zones change. The description of possible observational occurrence of the field of complex geometry is also presented.

Physical differences between initial phases of formation of two types of coronal mass ejections

V.G. Eselevich, M.V. Eselevich, V.A. Romanov, D.V. Romanov, K.V. Romanov

We have studied physical differences between formation processes of “gradual” and “impulse” coronal mass ejections (CMEs) at h < 0.2Ro, just before and during the initial phase of their motion (h is the height relative to the solar surface). The magnetic flux rope in the corona is shown to be the source of the “gradual” CME. Within the hour preceding the initial phase, we observe the following processes in the magnetic flux rope: its lower internal structures and then its outer part  the remotest from the Sun  display an increase in brightness and thickness. At the same time, the magnetic flux rope itself is motionless. The initial phase of the “gradual” CME starts with the motion of the outer part of the magnetic flux rope which later becomes a base of the CME frontal structure. The lower internal structures of the magnetic flux rope are practically motionless at this stage.
The initial phase of the “impulse” CME starts with appearance of a cavity near the photosphere; the cavity moves from the Sun and reflects the magnetic tube emerging from the photosphere. Encountering arch structures on its way, the magnetic tube collides with them and carries them away. These structures participate in formation of the “impulse” CME whose basis is the magnetic tube itself.

Magnetic Sun, pulsations and standing wave phenomena in the structure of the Solar system

M.Yu. Skulsky

The task outlined by the CrAO in 1960s for registration of magnetic field of the Sun as a star advanced afterwards systematic measurements of global photospheric oscillations. This program resulted in the discovery of the "enigmatic" of pulsations with a period $P_0=9600 s$, extended now to investigations of principles of planetary system organization. We show that the planetary structure of the Solar system is closely related to the phenomenon of standing wave with the length $\lambda_{SW}=\lambda/2$ (here: $\lambda=cP_0$ and $c$ - speed of light). The principle of outer planet ordering in the form of $a=n\lambda_{SW}$ ($a$ is a semi-major axis and $n$ - whole number) arranged outer planets at distances from the Sun proportional to a quarter and a half wavelengths. This algorithm is also true for dwarf planets and main transneptunian objects, including comet families. The principle of orbit ordering of inner planets is transformed into $2\pi a = m \lambda_{SW}^{'}$ (m - whole number) with a step $\lambda_{SW}^{'}=(1/12)\lambda_{SW}$. Orbit lengths of planets from Mercury to Mars are quantized with $\lambda_{SW}$ and its harmonics. These results are rather empirical; it is reasonable to suppose that the formation of both planetary groups of the Solar system accomplished through one and the same physical process like the wave transportation scenario. There results are considered to be essential, if one takes into account the current knowledge about formation of exoplanet systems.

On the origin of 11-year cycle

V.A. Kotov

Measurements of general magnetic field of the Sun seen as a star were performed by six observatories over last 45 years (1968-2012, in all 23 thousand daily values). Analysis of this time series showed that the most substantial long-term period of the Sun's field variation is the Hale's 22-year cycle, which cannot be explained by dynamo theory. It reveals a saw-edged profile, indicating cosmic origin. This suggestion is supported by the Sanchez's hypothesis about fundamental high-frequency oscillations of the observable Universe, characterized by a beating period $(a_B R_H^3)^{1/4} / c \approx 11$ year, where $a_B$ and $R_H$ are the Bohr and Hubble radii respectively, and $c$ speed of light.

Coherent Cosmic Oscillation, Tachyonic Principle and Return to Steady-State Cosmology and Eddington Theory

F.M. Sanchez, V.A. Kotov, C. Bizouard

Long-term observations of the Sun and a few AGN's allowed to discover a coherent cosmic oscillation with the unique period $t_{CC}$ = 9600.606(12) s. The absence of Doppler effect (apart dephasages) confirms the Tachyonic Principle: physics would be ruled by supercelerities much larger than speed of light $c$. Indeed, a gravitation-electricity symmetry produces a $c$-free formula giving half the Hubble radius, and it is shown that $ct_{CC}$ is both the intermediate length of the Black Atom model and the characteristic length of a canonical holographic system. A direct $c$-free time analysis, moreover, produces $t_{CC}$ within the gravitation constant $G$ accuracy $10^{-4}$, as well as the timescale 13.7 Gyr, which occurs to be, within 1%, the so-called Universe age of the $\Lambda$-CDM cosmological model. The Primordial Big Bang assumption is then toppled, in favor of the steady-state Universe, with a trivial 7/10 factor for the missing energy, confirming the Eddington's Large Number $136 \times 2^{256}$ of hydrogen atoms to 0.1%. Hence, both "dark energy" and "dark matter" are caused in fact by variation of the Newton's law, probably in connection with an universal matter-antimatter oscillation in a permanent oscillatory inflation ($10^{103}$ Hz).

The Earth's rotation: why 24 hours?

V.A. Kotov

Measurements of the Sun's general magnetic field, started by A.B. Severny and colleagues in 1968, opened door for the Sun-as-a-star investigations. This resulted in discovery of solar pulsations with the period $t_{CC} \approx 9600.6$ s, which occurs to be of true cosmological significance. Now we ask: is it accidental that the Earth rotates with the 24-hr period? It is shown that the best commensurate period of axial rotation of 13 largest fast-rotators of the Solar system is equal to 9800(240) s. It coincides, within the error limits, with the $t_{CC}$ period which, in its turn, occurs to be in close 1:9 resonance with the Earth rotation. The phenomenon is explained from the point of view of Wilczek's "crystals of time", synchronized by the $t_{CC}$ rhythm of the "universal clock", and under condition of "quasi-quantum" state of central cores of planets and large asteroids.

Magnetism of the Sun. The Sun-Earth reference system

V.A. Kotov

General magnetic field of the Sun changes with a "mysterious" period 1.036 year. An attempt to explain this phenomenon leads to conclusion that (a) the Sun and Earth possess a privileged reference system with the "anthropic" Sun-Earth axes and (b) our Universe is provided by an absolute space fixed to the spherically symmetric microwave background radiation (the Sun, with respect to the latter, is speeding with velocity 369 km/s towards the Leo constellation).

The cyclic accumulation and transfer of electron image Zeeman spectrum on the CCD: search for magnetic field variation in the $\gamma$ Equ roAp star

G.A. Chountonov

We searched for the magnetic field variation in the gam Equ roAp star's four lines of Nd III on the MSS BTA. The cyclic accumulation and transfer of electron image Zeeman spectrum to the CCD were used. The individual exposure time was chosen to be 1/8 of the spectral variability period. No magnetic field variation with 12.1 minutes period was found on the night of November 5-6, 2003.

Study of the formation and onset of motion of fast pulse halo coronal mass ejections

Yu.S. Zagainova, V.G. Fainshtein

We used GOES-12/SXI, SOHO/LASCO, SOHO/EIT, TRACE and others instruments to study the initial stage of the movement of six fast pulse halo coronal mass ejections (HCMEs). For one event (29 Oct 2003) we were able to register the formation of the CME. The conclusion was made that the HCMEs under examination can be subdivided into two groups depending on the time profile of their velocity V(t). One group consists of mass ejections whose velocity increases rapidly (within 10-50 minutes) with time to a maximum and then decreases. The other group consists of CMEs whose velocity increases for more than 2 hours while the mass ejection travels large distances in the field of view of the LASCO C3 coronagraph. It was shown that (1) fast coronal mass ejections occurring at different time in the same active region (homologous CMEs) are characterized by one and the same type of the time profile V(t); (2) CMEs with the first type of the V(t) profile appear in larger active areas exhibiting a more complex structure of sunspots than the active regions producing CMEs of the other time velocity profile. It was discovered that all the mass ejections under investigation are observed in the field of view of EIT in the 195 Å passband as emission loops (or, in one case, as an arcade of loops) for a few hours prior to their registration with SXI. For the coronal mass ejection observed on 29 Oct 2003 we are the first to register the formation of the frontal structure of a CME during simultaneous movements of several loop structures. Based on SXI data, five of the six HCMEs under study begin their forward motion before the associated X-ray flare. We confirmed the results in previous papers concerning the existence of an inverse correlation between the amplitude and duration of acceleration, as well as regarding the proximity of the measured duration of the main acceleration HCME to the rise time of soft X-ray emission intensity from the HCME-related flare area. Regularities have been discovered in the time variations of the HCME angular size, trajectory and longitudinal to lateral dimension ratio. For mass ejections with the first type velocity profile this ratio is shown to increase to a maximum within a short time and then decreases rapidly (lateral “overexpansion”), and then the HCME appears to enter the mode of self-similar expansion.

A study of the formation and the initial stage of movement of coronal mass ejections based on high temporal and spatial resolution data

V.G. Fainshtein, Ya.I. Egorov

Data from the SDO, PROBA2 and other spacecrafts were used to identify processes accompanying the emergence of 10 limb CMEs observed in 20102012 as well as detecting regularities in the motion of the CMEs at their initial stage. The appearance of most CMEs was preceded by a prominence or hot emission loop eruption, while all of them were associated with X-ray flares. A typical process for most CMEs was the emergence in their place of origin of the moving structures of increased brightness, while, at the same time, multiple high-brightness areas highlighted the spot where the frontal structure of the CME would later form. The frontal structure arises and begins to move away from the limb after moving internal structures contact the place of its formation. We have found a positive correlation between the height of CME-related eruptive prominence and the height of the frontal structure of the CME as measured before they start to move. We confirmed the known features as well as discovering new ones concerning the way the mass ejection kinematics is linked to soft and hard X-ray intensity of the associated flares. It has been demonstrated, through the example of several CMEs, that at the initial stage of their movement some mass ejections exhibit a time interval ranging several minutes to ≈ ten minutes when the CME increases more in the transverse dimension than it does in the longitudinal dimension (lateral “overexpansion”). For two CMEs, the kinematics of the CME body and associated shock were compared. A significant difference has been discovered between the velocity time profiles of the CME body and the shock wave. This suggests that the detected shock waves are not piston shocks with the CME body acting as a piston.

The Sun, Cosmos and Newton constant

F.M. Sanchez, V.A. Kotov, C. Bizouard

Observations of the Sun and a few AGN's resulted in discovery of a coherent cosmic oscillation with a period of $t_{CC}$ = 9600.606(12) s, free from Doppler effect (independent on redshift $z$). It happens to be characteristic also, with factors $\pi/2$ or $1/2\pi$, for revolution of close binary stars. The elimination of speed of light between electric, gravitational and weak interaction energies gives exactly $t_{CC}$ period, representing, therefore, a rhythm of an absolute time of the Universe, -- in full accordance with the Newton's comprehension. This specifies also the gravitation constant, favored by independent correlation analysis: $G = 6.675435(10) \times 10^{-11}$ m$^3$ kg$^{-1}$ s$^{-2}$, -- with 80-100 times better accuracy than that of all previous determinations performed after Cavendish.

Decay instability of kinetic Alfven waves in preflare chromosphere of solar active region

A.N. Kryshtal, S.V. Gerasimenko, A.D. Voitsekhovska

Necessary physical conditions for the appearance of decay instability of kinetic Alfven waves, which can exist in solar plasma of the loop structures near its foot-points at the earliest stage of a flare process, i.e. well before the “preheating” phase, have been investigated. The modified expression for the growth rate of the process of decay of initial (“maternal”) kinetic Alfven wave (KAW) into kinetic ion-acoustic wave (KIAW) and secondary (“daughter”) KAW with making use of the conditions of synchronism have been obtained.
Three models of the solar atmosphere have been used in the calculations, namely models MAVN F1 and MAVN F2M, which allow us to neglect influence of high energetic particle beams in the area under investigations, when we study the process of energy exchange between the chromosphere and corona. The third model is the model FAL PM, which takes into account the influence of the process of helium diffusion. We supposed that magnetic field amplitude at the heights under investigation in the chromosphere varies in the range 10≤B0≤100 G, which is typical for so called “matted” fields. It has been proved that KIAW's generation in preflare plasma near the loop's foot-point is possible on principle due to decay instability of KAW. “Accidentally” appeared unstable KAW with nonzero growth rate can transform through the decay instability (or through the finite number of such “decays”) into the KAW with zero growth rate, i.e. into the nondamped wave. Process of generation of KIAW needs much more high threshold value of the ratio of the amplitude of “external” magnetic field than in the case of laboratory's plasma. The obtained values of magnetic field amplitude in a wave get into the interval of magnetic field's amplitude changes, which were fixed by the observers in the atmospheres of considerable number of flares.
Our investigation has shown the principal possibility of the existence of additional channel of generation of the small-scale kinetic waves in the preflare atmosphere of the solar active region.

Theory of Fossil Magnetic Field

A.E. Dudorov, S.A. Khaibrakhmanov

The theory of the fossil magnetic field is based on observations, analytical estimations and numerical simulations of the magnetic flux evolution during star formation in the magnetized cores of molecular clouds. Base goals, main features and applications of MHD effects in T Tauri, Ae/Be Herbig and Cp Stars are discussed.

Physical mechanism of generation of coronal mass ejection from upper convective zone of the Sun.

V.G. Eselevich, M.V. Eselevich, N.V. Kucherov, V.A. Romanov, D.V. Romanov, K.V. Romanov

Solar flares, eruptive prominences and coronal mass ejections (CME) are powerful manifestations of destabilization of coronal magnetic field. Most often the destabilization is caused by strengthening of magnetic field due to new magnetic flux entering solar atmosphere through photosphere [1].
In this paper the stability of oscillations of thin magnetic flux located within convective zone is addressed. In mechanical equilibrium, the tube can host two kinds of linear waves: fast (Alfven) waves and slow magnetosonic (sausage) waves (fig.1). In presence of the gravitation, the slow wave is first to become unstable. At the nonlinear stage of development of slow magnetosonic wave instability (Parker's instability [2]), upper part of magnetic field apex nonlinearly emerges to the surface due to plasma outflow from the apex. Emergence speed at photosphere may reach 50 km/sec (Mach = 6) and more... Fig. 2 shows distribution of critical values of MHD parameters for Parker's instability to occur for different depths and wave numbers m.
For low frequency oscillations (m < 4), the Parker's instability breaks the confinement at lower layer of convective zone. As wave number grows (10 < m < 20), the boundary of stability region moves toward the photosphere but doesn't cross 5•104 km depth. In parallel, the strength of the emerging magnetic field grows up to 103Gs reaching domain of parameters of solar active regions [3].Development of Parker's instability leads to transport of magnetic field into solar atmosphere in shortwave part of spectrum (m > 20). From the depth range of order of 5•104 km the apex of the ark (length ~L/6) is able to gain supersonic speed of emergence (fig.1).
[1] Alekseenko S.V. et al.: 2000, Rus. J. Eng. Thermophys., 10, 243.
[2] Parker E.N.: 1979, Astrophysics and Space Science, 62, 135.
[3] Eselevich V.G. et al.: 2011, Proceedings of XIIth ISBSS, Irkutsk, p.102.

Some unusual spectral variability of IL Cep

N.Z. Ismailov, G.R. Bahaddinova, O.V. Khalilov

The results of six years of spectroscopic studies of the Herbig Be star ILCep (HD216629) are reported. Various spectral parameters of the Hα and Hβ emission lines and those of the He I λ 5876 Å absorption feature are found for the first time to have exhibited slow variations in 2006–2011 and to have reached their extreme in 2009–2010. The Hα and Hβ profiles have a two-component structure. The Hα profile exhibits significant variations of the shift of the peak, whereas the equivalent width of this line remains relatively stable. When Hα could not be resolved into two distinct peaks (the 2006–2007 data), the only peak of the line was seen to be redshifted. Since 2008 two barely detached emission peaks could be observed.
The 200 km/s shift of the strongest Hα peak may either be a result of the real shift of a single peak, or a result of alternating intensity increase of the red and blue emission components, producing the effect of the apparent shift of the peak. In any case, the observed variability is a result of certain dynamic processes. The Na I D1 and D2 lines reproduce, in a weaker form, the Hα radial-velocity variations. It is suggested that the variations found in the spectrum of the star may be due to the presence of additional bodies in the system.

Magnetic fields of T Tauri stars in the framework

N.Z. Ismailov, G.R. Bahaddinova, H.A. Abdi

Efforts to explain many observational properties of classical T Tauri type stars (CTTS) have focused on magnetic interactions between the central star and the accretion disk surrounding it. Some disk accretion models of last years require that each CTTS has a particular magnetic field strength depending on its own properties (stellar mass  M*, radius R*, the period of rotation of the star $P_{rot}$ and the mass accretion rate dM/dt). By measuring these parameters of the star we can evaluate a surface magnetic field strength on each CTTSs.
Using a statistically significant number of stars with known physical parameters we were able to get the empirical formulas that allow us to define one of the key parameters - dM/dt. The obtained values of the magnetic field show a satisfactory agreement with some direct measurements of the small numbers of the magnetic field for the individual stars.
Evaluation of the magnetic field within the framework of different models showed that the obtained values of the magnetic fields of stars may differ significantly. A difference of obtained values of the magnetic field for different magnetosphere accretion models demonstrates insolvency of available theoretical disk accretion models.

Solar activity: variations in solar radiation at different wavelengths in the 2010-2013

G.S.Ivanov-Kholodnyi, V.Ye.Chertoprud

Based on SDO/AIA data and solar index F10.7, the variations of solar radiation at different wavelengths have been analyzed. There were used AIA “synoptic” charts for three channels: 94 Å, 1700 Å and 4500 Å taken in 1 day. The area with latitudes ± 30° and longitudes ± 15° was allocated on each chart. Based on all points of the region, the average radiation and other parameters have been calculated. Series of daily values of these parameters have been obtained. The analysis of these series, along with rows of F10.7 revealed the characteristic variations of solar radiation at different wavelengths.
The main results are as follows: 1. The high connection between variations of radiation 94Å and F10.7 has been unexpectedly found. The correlation coefficient between the 27-day 94 Å and F10.7 index is 0.93 ± 0.02. 2. The north-south asymmetry has been found in 4500 Å radiation intensity. 3. 10% increase in the intensity of radiation 4500 Å in 3-year interval of observations has been revealed. These and other results have been discussed. The work was supported by the Russian foundation for basic research, project 11-02-00259-а and 13-02-01183-а. We are grateful to the SDO/AIA teams for the data.

The Methods of Polarization Sounding of the Pulsar Magnetosphere

O.M Ulyanov, A.I. Shevtsova, A.A. Seredkina

The methods of polarization sounding of the pulsar magnetosphere using its own radio emission as a probe signal have been developed. These methods are applicable to the pulsar magnetosphere, where the radiation at different frequencies is generated from different heights above the pulsar surface. At the same time the magnetic field and electron/positron concentration are changed rapidly with height change. The study of the polarization parameters and the Rotation Measure for individual pulses in a wide frequency range allows probing the upper layer of the pulsar magnetosphere.
The algorithm for determining the pulsar radio emission polarization parameters at decameter wavelengths using two output channels on the receiving end of a radio telescope with two orthogonal linear or circular polarizations is present in the work. The layered model of the weakly anisotropic propagation medium (interstellar, interplanetary and ionospheric plasma) is reviewed [1]. The estimations of all polarization parameters of the single pulse in the pulsar reference frame are obtained using the numerical simulation methods. The estimation of the Rotation Measure is obtained with the methodological accuracy that is 1000 times greater than the accuracy of analogical algorithms previously used.
The polarization parameters of the real pulses PSR B0809 +74, B1133 +16 at 23.7 MHz are obtained using the developed algorithm. The rapid fluctuations of the Rotation Measure are registered in the direction of these pulsars.
[1] O.M. Ulyanov, A.I. Shevtsova, D.V. Mukha, A.A. Seredkina: 2013, Baltic Astronomy, 22, 53.

The Solar magnetic activity, stratospheric ozone and global temperature in the second halt of 20th and in the early 21st centuries

I.S. Laba, T.Ya. Pidstryhach, P.H. Lisnyak

The gradual decrease of polar (poloidal) solar magnetic field was revealed during the minima of three last cycles (1986 and 1996) against the background of age-old Modern Max.
The decrease causes either appearance of deep and long last minimum of cycles 23/24 (2008), or age-old minimum that is to say several 11-year cycles of low intensity, since cycle 24. The total solar irradiance changes in accordance with Wolf numbers is directly connected with the global temperature (Tglob), and depends on evolution of magnetic fields on its surface.
The Tglob increased by (0.6-0.8)°C from 1970 to 1998, and prior to 2012 was all most stabilized itselt, though pollution of the atmosphere by CO2 was keeping on and all climatic simulations have predicted only the rise of Tglob.
The stratospheric ozone after considerable depletion changes itself into greenhouse gas. Therefore the rise of Tglob prior to 1998 was caused either by rise of solar activity or by depletion of ozone layer but not the pollution of the atmosphere by CO2.
low level of solar activity was compensated due to the considerable depletion of ozone layer with formation of ozone holes. Ozone holes caused the increase of solar energy which reached the surface of the Earth, keeping Tglob nearly stabilized, since 1998 prior to 2012.

About generation of a magnetic field in stars

V.V. Leushin

In plasma of stellar substance the magnetic field can be generated by movements in a star according to the Maxwell equations. Based on these equations changes of a magnetic field are described by ohmic attenuation and either strengthening or weakening of a field, depending on the direction of movement of plasma and a field. The field can make work spending energy on acceleration of movement, or to spend energy of movements in a star for indemnification of ohmic losses or even generation of a field. In the case of a double star the field arisen in one of components leads to braking its rotation. The fast rotation of a component provides evidence of absence of a magnetic field. Simultaneously, the fact that in one component there is a field, and in the second there is no one, can testify that the field is not relic. The distinction of a component of the system in physical parameters leads to that the first component generates the field and the second does not.
The speed of field variations is directly proportional to the speed of substance moving which for a star can be characterized by the rotation velocity.
Thus, we can conclude, that the magnetic field strength is probably connected with stellar rotation velocity. The fact that such correlation is not observed for magnetic Ар stars, can be caused by fast braking of rotation because of braking by a magnetic field. Observations show that such braking of rotation needs several hundreds years. For the present, the time of attenuation of the field is identical to the time of lives of a star on MS.

On the longitudinal synchronism of the sunspot formation in northern and southern hemispheres

M. Koval`chuk, M. Hirnyak

The result of statistical processing of solar observations during different phases of solar activity cycles 22 and 23 shows that the spot groups from the northern and southern hemispheres interact at rather close longitudes within the range of latitudes (35-45°). Therefore one may see synchronism of the sunspot formation either in the northern or in the southern hemispheres in addition to the hemispherical asymmetry. This suggests the high level of synchronism (synchronism coefficient is 0.68) of magnetic interaction of active regions of different hemispheres, especially during the maximum phases of cycles. The synchronism of activity in northern and southern hemispheres shows rather high value -0.57 also during the other phases of cycles.

Morphology of the fine structure of chromospheric network

M. Koval`chuk, M. Stodilka, M. Hirnyak, I. Laba

Some special features of chromospheric fine structure at its different levels in and K CaII lines were compared in this paper. It was revealed that morphology of the fine structure of the chromosphere at these altitude levels has a similar two-component structure. The presence of periodical component in distribution of photometric inhomogeneities over the disk was obtained from constructed autocorrelation and cross-correlation curves. Here R is the radius of correlation, L - integral scale of correlation and Λ - dimension of periodical component, the changes of these quantities with wavelength were calculated for line : R = 1.35 · 103 km; L = 2.38 ·103 km and Λ = 3.2 · 104 km for line K CaII: 0.78 · 103 km; L = 1.41 · 103 km and Λ = 2.0 · 104 km. The computation of power spectra shows that the spectra have their maxima at the range of spatial scales 30000-20000 km (for and K CaII lines correspondingly), this is within the limits of already known supergranulation scale. The results of calculations of cross-correlation functions have shown rather low value of cross-correlations, which can be interpreted as the violation of similarity of the power spectra at different depths.
All scales of chromospheric structures which were obtained from observations and which correspond to the elements of chromospheric network at different altitudes are genetically connected formations. They represent processes which may take place in layers of the solar atmosphere which are different either by altitude or by physical state.

Radial magnetic field distributions in the solar corona based on fast halo CME data

V.G. Fainshtein, Ya.I. Egorov, V.A. Pichuev

We determined radial distributions of the magnetic field along directions close to that of the Sun – Earth axis using the method of detecting radial profiles of the magnetic field in the solar corona B(R) suggested in the paper [1]. To do this we found the 3D parameters of CME and related shock using the “Ice-cream cone model” [2]. Using the obtained data we found distribution of B(R) at distances of up to 40 solar radii, which is about twice as far as was found in the paper by Gopalswamy and Yashiro. Based on the obtained values of the magnetic field in front of the shock wave, it is concluded that for one group of the CMEs in question, their central parts moved in the slow solar wind, while for the other CMEs they moved in the fast solar wind.
[1] Gopalswamy N., Yashiro S. Astrophys. J. Lett., 736, L17, 2011.
[2] Xue XH et al., JGR, 110, A08103, 2005.

On possible formation cause for the impulsive coronal mass ejections

V. Eselevich, M. Eselevich

The initial development stage of two limb impulsive coronal mass ejections was considered using data from the AIA/SDO. One of the ejections was accompanied by an active prominence; another was associated with a flare. The conclusion was made that the cause for the ejection formation in both cases can be a magnetic tube floating up from under the photosphere which interacts when moving with the arch structures located in the area of the ejection.

Stratification-induced scale splitting in convection

O.V. Shcheritsa, A.V. Getling and O.S. Mazhorova

The dynamics of solar magnetic fields depends crucially on the structure of the velocity field in the convection zone. In particular, the coexistence of convective motions on various scales is clearly reflected by the magnetic-field structure on photospheric levels and should have a profound effect on the formation of active regions. Therefore, it is important to investigate the factors responsible for the multiscale spectrum of solar convection. In this study, an attempt is made to investigate the effect of the static temperature stratification of the fluid layer on the scales of convective motions. The equations of two-dimensional thermal convection are solved numerically in an extended Boussinesq approximation, which admits thermal-diffusivity variations. A fluid layer heated from below is considered, and the stratification is specified either by variations in the thermal diffusivity or by a vertical distribution of heat sources. The static temperature difference across a thin sublayer near the upper surface of the layer is assumed to be many times larger than the temperature variation across the remainder of the layer. Manifestations of the scale-splitting effect are noted, which depend on the boundary conditions and stratification. The effect of the presence of a stably stratified regions contiguous with the convective layer on the flow scales is also considered. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project no. 12-02-00792-a).

Does the rising-tube mechanism really play a crucial role in the formation of sunspot groups?

A.V. Getling, R. Ishikawa and A.A. Buchnev

Some preliminary processing results are presented for a dataset obtained with the Solar Optical Telescope on the Hinode satellite. The idea of the project consists in nearly simultaneously recording the full velocity and magnetic-field vectors in growing active regions and developing sunspot groups at the photospheric level. Our ultimate aim is to elaborate observational criteria to distinguish between two mechanisms — the rising of a flux tube and the magnetic-field amplification and structuring by convection, either of which can play a role in the formation of sunspot groups.
Observations of AR 11313 at its early development stages were carried out on 9–10 October 2011. During each 2-h observational session, 5576Å filtergram images and Dopplergrams followed at a time cadence of 2 min and one or two 32-min-long spectropolarimetric fast-mode scans were done. Based on series of filtergrams, we computed the trajectories of corks using a substantially improved version of the local-correlation-tracking (LCT) technique and compared them with magnetic maps.
Our preliminary findings are as follows:
(1) The velocity pattern in the growing active region has nothing to do with a spreading flow that could be expected in the case of the emergence of a rising tube.
(2) There is a separatrix between the polarities such that the surface flows converge to but not diverge from it.
(3) The observed scenario of evolution seems to agree with Bumba’s [1] inference that the development of the active region does not entail the destruction of the existing convective-velocity field.
Hinode is a Japanese mission developed and launched by ISAS/JAXA, with NAOJ as domestic partner and NASA and STFC (UK) as international partners. It is operated by these agencies in cooperation with ESA and NSC (Norway). This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project no. 12-02-00792-а).
[1] V. Bumba, Rendiconti della Scuola Internazionale di Fisica "E.Fermi," 39 Corso (1967), p. 77.

Heliophysics space program

V.D. Kuznetsov

The paper provides a review of the state of the art and prospects of space research in heliophysics. The currently operating space missions (Hinode, SDO, STEREO, etc.) are prepared to be replaced by new ones, such as the Interhelioprobe, Solar Orbiter, Solar Probe, etc. aimed at observing the Sun from close distances and from out-of-ecliptic positions, as well as at conducting in-situ measurements in the vicinity of the Sun and outside the ecliptic plane. The planned coordinated observations within the frames of these missions will allow us to explore the structure and dynamics of magnetic fields in the polar regions of the Sun, to study mechanisms of the solar dynamo and solar cycle, to gain a deeper insight into the process of heating of the solar corona and solar wind acceleration, and to get a response to a number of other pressing issues of heliophysics.

Comparison of measured and calculated heliospheric magnetic fields along the Ulysses orbit

N.S. Svirzhevsky, G.A. Bazilevskaya, Yu.I. Stozhkov, A.K. Svirzhevskaya

A possibility to calculate magnetic fields in the heliosphere by means of the local parameters of heliospheric plasma – temperature and density  was considered. Magnetic fields and plasma measurements on the Ulysses spacecraft were used to make calculations at different heliolatitudes and distances to the Sun. A simple mathematical formula describing a relation between the heliospheric magnetic fields and the solar plasma temperature and density was introduced. The regression equations and correlation coefficients between the values of measured and calculated magnetic fields were defined at a daily and hourly scale. An origin of peaks in the magnetic field which are observed in the heliospheric sector zone in connection with the corotating interaction regions are disscused as well as the specific role of plasma density and temperature in the formation of magnetic peaks.

Influence of Fermi Bubbles Magnetic Field on the Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays Propagation

O. Sushchov, O. Kobzar, B. Hnatyk, V. Marchenko, L. Stawarz

As it follows from existing observational data, Fermi bubbles (FB) have magnetic field, but its structure is poorly explored. This field magnitude is estimated to have values up to about 10 mkG. According to our estimations this is sufficient for detectable influence on the cosmic rays (CR) propagation. In the present work the influence of FB magnetic field on the CR deflections and their arrival directions registered by the surface detectors are investigated. We have modeled the motion of CR with different energies taking into account the newest model of regular galactic magnetic field (GMF). Different types of FB field configurations are assumed because of lack of observational data. We have obtained maps of CR deflections for all considered types of FB field combined with GMF, as well as for GMF itself. The comparison of obtained maps allows us to conclude that the influence of FB magnetic field on the CR propagation is comparable with regular GMF.

Coronal magnetic field and sources of radio emission above sunspots: capabilities of researches and problems

N.G. Peterova, N.A. Topchilo

Spectral and polarization observations of the Sun on radio waves, as we know, give the possibility to investigate the coronal magnetic field (CMF) in a wide interval of heights from the photosphere level to distances ~ 100 thousand km, now – in detail ~ 100 km. Using the theory of solar radio emission, some methods for studying both strong fields (2-3) KGs (transition region from the chromosphere to corona), and weak (10-100) Gs (plage brightnings, “halo” like sources, prominences) are developed. Some examples of coronal plasma investigations with application of these methods are given. The correctness of general ideas about the nature of solar radio emission doesn't raise doubts, however there are certain reasons for revision (or corrections) the existing CMF models. For example, interpretation of cyclotron radio sources observations often conflicts to the standard opinion that o- and e-mode of this radiation are generated at various heights – respectively on the 2nd and 3rd gyrolevels [1]. There is an assumption that CMF can't be represented as a single model, and it is necessary to use different models for the bottom and top corona.
[1] Peterova et al., Astron.Rep., 2011, V. 55, No. 9, p. 841.

Mean kinetic helicity of thermal convective flows in a rotating horizontal layer

A.V. Getling

In the theory of MHD dynamos, the mean kinetic helicity is regarded as an important parameter on which the $\alpha$ effect depends. It is frequently assumed that the compressibility-conditioned asymmetry between the upper and lower halves of the layer of a convecting fluid is sufficient for the left-handed and right-handed spiraled streams to differ in the magnitudes of their contributions to the mean helicity and, therefore, to produce a nonzero mean helicity.

We numerically simulate convection in a horizontal layer of a polytropically stratified compressible fluid, heated from below and rotating about the vertical direction. Evolutionary scenarios with either cellular or noise initial perturbations are analyzed. We demonstrate that the compressibility of the layer does not ensure a certain sign of the mean helicity. In the case of cellular initial perturbations, a relatively regular behaviour of the mean helicity is observed as long as the convection preserves its ordered structure. Some characteristic absolute values of the mean helicity reach a maximum at some ``optimum’’ rotational velocity of the layer. If the development of convection starts from random perturbations, the helicity varies in a complex way, being in particular mainly negative at a Rayleigh number of R = 6683.5386 and sign-alternating, with some predominance of positive values, at R = 20050.617. Thus, estimates of the mean helicity generally require a fairly detailed knowledge of the structure and evolution of the velocity field, which should not be simply represented as ``turbulence.’’

This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project no. 12-02-00792-a).

Terskol solar telescope - an instrument to study magnetic fields in solar active regions.

O. Andriyenko

ATsU-26 solar telescope is placed on Terskol peak (3100 m above sea level, North Caucasus). It was build along with 5-camera spectrograph with the aim to observe particularly solar flares. During last years the telescope was equipped with several auxiliary systems namely a guide, an H-alpha full disk monitor, a slit-jaw imaging system, polarimetric system. The main characteristics of the telescope and its subsystems are described. Observational program plans are discussed.

Breadth of research interests of academician A.B. Severny

V.V. Prokofjeva-Mikhailovskaya

A.B. Severny was a person of remarkable breadth in his research interests. Besides solar and stellar magnetic fields, he was interested in solar activity and its influence on Earth, helioseismology, radio astronomy, etc. He discovered the 160-minute oscillations of the Sun. He took active part in space exploration of the Sun and stars organized in CrAO. He was the first to reveal that there is atmosphere on the Moon. Thanks to him asteroid discoveries have been started in the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory. A.B. Severny looked through all the papers prepared for publication in the journal “Izvestiya Krymskoi Astrofizicheskoi Observatorii” and discussed them with authors. He was awarded the State Prize of the USSR twice (in 1952 and 1984). He got the title of Hero of Socialist Labour in 1973 and was awarded seven orders and many medals. In 1957 - 1968 he was president of the IAU Commission on solar activity, in 1964 - 1970 - vice-president of the International Astronomical Union. He was a member of the Royal Society of London, a member of the Heidelberg Academy of Sciences and the International Academy of Astronautics. He has written over 270 research papers. Several dozens of doctors and candidates of sciences have been trained by him. The minor planet 1737 was named in his honour “Severny”.

Peculiarities of solar photospheric convection at different spatial scales

O.A. Baran, M.I. Stodilka

We obtained power spectra of temperature and vertical velocity variations in the solar photosphere using neutral iron line λ ≈ 639.3 nm profiles from the observations with high spatial resolution. We analyzed the spectra change with height and found the following features:
1) in the lower photosphere the main power is localized on the granular scales with a peak at scales of about 1÷1.5 Mm (for the velocity variations) and 1.5÷2 Mm (for the temperature variations) and it decreases with height; a separate regime of mesogranulaton at scales 5÷10 Mm distincted from granulation by a power gap has not been found, so mesostructures appear as a part of a broad distribution of granular scales;
2) in the higher levels of the solar photosphere power of vertical velocity fluctuations decreases on the granular scales and stays almost stable on the supergranular scales (λ = 20÷30 Mm), so supergranular flows reach much higher layers, then granular ones.

The chromospheric line-of-sight velocity changes in a solar microflare

U.M. Leiko, N.N. Kondrashova

The variation of the chromospheric line-of-sight velocity in the active region NOAA 11024 on 4 July 2009 before, during, and after a solar microflare was studied. The spectral observations were carried out by E. V. Khomenko with the French-Italian THEMIS telescope of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. We use high-resolution spectra obtained in the Hα line over 21 minutes. Spatial resolution was below 1 arcsec. The time interval between the spectra was 2.84 s.
Doppler velocities were measured in five cuts in and out the microflare location using the wavelength shift of the local minimum of the line profiles. We revealed strong line-of-sight velocity temporal variations in the chromosphere. During 12 min at the beginning of the observations the upflows were in all cuts of the plage. The velocities were in the range -25 - -4 km/s. Then during 3 min the upflow velocities in the plage were decreasing in time from -14 km/s to about 0 km/s. Before the flare the direction of the motion in the center of the flare region changed, and the downflows with velocity up to 5 km/s continued till the flare maximum. The upflows were observed in the chromosphere after the flare.
The oscillations of the line-of-sight velocity were found in all cuts of the plage, microflare, and quiet chromosphere. The power spectra were constructed to determine the periods of the oscillations. Their analysis shows that 3- and 5- minute oscillations are present as in the quiet chromosphere as in the plage but they are modified in the plage region. The stable oscillations with periods from 2.2 to 2.4 min and 1.20-1.27 min are in the plage. The first period is not observed in the quiet chromosphere.
Spectra constructed for the microflare show the oscillations with periods in the range 1.03 – 1.46 min, 0.60 – 0.76 min, 0.31 – 0.40 min, 0.47 – 0.52 min, and 0.24 – 0.26 min.

Diagnostics of small-scale magnetic fields in the solar photosphere

M.I. Stodilka

The small-scale magnetic fields are ubiquitous, since they are seen everywhere in the quiet Sun. Results of determining the magnetization of the quiet Sun photosphere based on Hanle and Zeeman effects show that most of the flux and magnetic energy reside on still unresolved scales.
In this paper, we investigate the possibility of small-scale magnetic fields diagnostics using two approaches to describe them: 1 - deterministic approach: magnetic field at each point of the atmosphere is described by a vector of magnetic field strength; 2 – stochastic approach: magnetic field is described by a average value of the local magnetic field at a given distribution of its magnitude, and a parameter, which determines the distribution of directions of magnetic field vector in space (it also defines the mutual compensation of magnetic fields). We wrote the corresponding expressions for the elements of the line absorption matrix.
Under both approaches we solved for magnetic iron lines radiative transfer equations. So Stokes profiles were obtained and the parameters which define magnetic field were determined. We also investigated obtained magnetic field calibration dependences.

Discovery of Refractive Multiple Quasar Imaging

A.B. Pushkarev, Y.Y. Kovalev, M.L. Lister, T. Hovatta, T. Savolainen, M.F. Aller, H.D. Aller, E. Ros, J.A. Zensus, J.L. Richards, W. Max-Moerbeck, A.C.S. Readhead

We report on the first detection of the theoretically-predicted rare phenomenon of multiple parsec-scale imaging of an active galactic nucleus induced by refractive effects due to localized foreground electron density enhancements, e.g., in an AU-scale plasma lens(es) confined by magnetic fields in the ionized component of the Galactic interstellar medium. We detected multiple imaging in the low galactic latitude (b=-2 deg) quasar 2023+335 from the 15.4 GHz MOJAVE observations when the source was undergoing an extreme scattering event (ESE). While the parsec-scale jet of the source normally extends along PA -20 deg, in the 28 May 2009 and 23 July 2009 images a highly significant multi-component pattern of secondary images is stretched out nearly along the constant galactic latitude line with a local PA 40 deg, indicating that the direction of relative motion of the plasma lens is close to orbital. Weaker but still detectable imaging patterns at similar position angles are sporadically manifest at several other epochs. Modeling the ESE that occurred in early 2009 and lasted 0.14 yr, we determined that the foreground screen has a double-lens structure, with proper motion (6.8 mas/yr), and angular size (0.27 mas). We also found that the angular separation between the two brightest sub-images roughly follows a wavelength-squared dependence expected from plasma scattering. Furthermore, by analyzing archival non-simultaneous VLBA observations covering a wide frequency range from 1.4 to 86 GHz, we found that the scattered angular size of the VLBI core follows a $\nu^{-1.89}$ dependence, implying the presence of a turbulent, refractive dominated scattering screen that has a confined structure or is truncated transverse to the line of sight toward 2023+335.

Vega: variable standard

V. Butkovskaya

Vega is one of the brightest and most familiar stars in the night sky, termed as “arguably the next most important star in the sky after the Sun”. Over 60 years Vega has been accepted as a standard star in the near infrared, optical, and ultraviolet regions. But nowadays the 21-year variability of Vega was detected by Vasil’ev et al. [1], and confirmed by Butkovskaya et al. [2]. Recent spectropolarimetric studies of Vega have revealed the presence of a weak magnetic field on the star [3], [4], [5]. Using results of spectropolarimetric study of Vega performed during 37 nights from 1997 to 2012 (1353 measurements) Butkovskaya [5] adopted for Vega the rotation period 0.62255 d, which proved to be close to the rotation period 0.663d estimated by Hill et al. [6] from high resolution spectral line profiles study. I summarize the recent results of Vega’s variability study.
[1] Vasil’ev, I.A. et al.: 1989, IBVS 3308.
[2] Butkovskaya et al.: 2011, AN, 332, 970.
[3] Lignieres, F. et al.: 2009, A&A 500, L41.
[4] Petit P. et al.: 2010, A&A, 523, id.A41.
[5] Butkovskaya V.: 2013, in press.
[6] Hill G. et al.: 2010, ApJ, 712, 250.

Properties and dynamics of the 3D large-scale solar magnetic field over the last four solar cycles

О.A. Andryeyeva, Z.S. Akhtemov, G.V. Rudenko, N.N. Stepanian, V.G. Fainshtein.

The magnetic field in the region between the surface of the Sun and the surface source of radius $R = 2.5 R_\odot$, where $R_\odot$ - radius of the Sun, was calculated in the potential approximation from daily measurements of the photospheric magnetic field in the Kitt Peak (March 1975 - September 2003) and with telescope SOLIS (NSO) (January 2004 - April 2013). The synoptic maps of the radial component of the magnetic field at different heights for the Carrington solar rotations 1625 - 2006, 2012 - 2135 were constructed using the results of these calculations. Characteristics of the large scale unipolar structures in the solar atmosphere and their change with time were studied using this material.

Starspot activity of classical RS CVn-type system IN Com

I.Yu. Alekseev, O.V. Kozlova

We present the analysis of the cyclical starspots activity of variable star IN Com on the base of UBVRI photometric and linear polarimetric observations obtained during 10 years. The photometric stellar variability can be described completely by a zonal spottedness model. Starspots occupy up to 22% of the total stellar surface. The temperature difference between the quiet photosphere and starspots is about 600 K. Starspots are localized at the middle 40 – 60° latitudes. We detected the broad band linear polarization on IN Com and its rotational modulation due to local magnetic fields on the stellar surface which are localized near the most spotted longitudes.

Modeling of the chromosphere of the solar two-ribbon flare on 4 September 1990

E.A. Baranovsky, N.N. Kondrashova, M.N. Pasechnik, V.P. Tarashchuk

The thermodynamical parameters of the chromosphere of two-ribbon solar flare on 4 September 1990 is studied using the observed profiles of the $H\alpha$ line. The spectra of bright flare kernels and associated surge have been received with the solar horizontal telescope ATsU-26 at the Terskol Peak Observatory. The profiles were obtained for seven moments of the initial flare phase. The observed line profiles show significant emission in the line wings (up to 10-12 $\AA$) with quite moderate residual intensity in the line centre (r=0.35-0.6). For explanation of such peculiarity of line profiles the calculations of semiempirical models were made with two or three components. The additional model components refer to unresolved details in flare region. The calculation of models was done by the way of concordance of the calculated and observed profiles. The models were received in seven moments of observations for three photometric cuts of the flare region, which relate to centre and edge of the surge. The emission in the line wings is explained by the model component with significant heating (by 1000-2000 K) of the lower chromosphere and the temperature minimum region. The asymmetry of the emission is explained by the presence of line-of-sight velocities up to 70 km/s and more. Filling factor of the additional component ranged from 5 to 12 %. Second peculiarity of the observed profiles is strong asymmetry and displacement with respect to the undisturbed profile. This feature is interpreted by the presence of the matter movements in opposite directions. In the majority of received models line-of-sight velocities are directed to the observer in the upper chromosphere (10 - 100 km/s) and from the observer in the lower chromosphere (5 - 20 km/s).

Physical State of the Photosphere at the Main Phase of a Weak Solar Flare

E.S. Andriiets, N.N. Kondrashova

The variation of the photosphere physical state during the main phase of a weak solar flare on 28 May 2012 in active region NOAA 11490 is studied. At the day of our observations, this active region was located near the disk centre. We used the data of the spectropolarimetric observations with the solar telescope THEMIS (Tenerife, Spain) obtained with a high space and temporal resolution. The seeing conditions were good during the time of our observations. The modeling was based on I, U, V Stokes profiles of six Fraunhofer lines. Semiempirical photospheric models are derived from the inversion with SIR (Stokes Inversion based on Response functions) code. Each model has a two-component structure: a magnetic flux tube and non-magnetic surroundings. The Harvard Smithsonian Reference Atmosphere (HSRA) has been adopted for the surroundings. The macroturbulent velocity and the filling factor were assumed to be constant with the depth. The height dependences of the temperature, magnetic field strength, and line-of-sight velocity are obtained from inversion. According to the received models the parameters of the magnetic field and the thermodynamical parameters changed during the main phase of the flare. The models show that the photosphere remained in a disturbed state after the maximum of the flare. There is some temporal changes in the temperature and the magnetic field strength height dependences. The temperature enhancement in the upper photospheric layers is found in the flaring atmospheres relative to the quiet-Sun model. The upflows are found in the upper photosphere at the decay phase of the flare.

WZ Sagittae in the beginning of the relaxation after superoutburst in 2001

E.S. Dmitrienko

We report the results of the analysis of the brightness variability of WZ Sagittae in the beginning of it's relaxation after superoutburst in 2001. The analysis is based on the high-speed synchronous UBVRI photometry of the system after about 56-58 days from the beginning of the outburst's decay. Possible explanations of some features of the light behavior of WZ Sagittae caused by the magnetized white dwarf component is discussed.

Online service for solar images and spectra obtained by The Solar Tower Telescope 2

R.K. Zhygalkin

We present online service for solar images and spectra management and their integration in other virtual applications.

Evolution of solar active regions before the X-class flares based on the RATAN-600 and SDO/HMI data

V.E. Abramov-Maximov, V.N. Borovik, L.V. Opeikina, A.A. Tlatov

Carried out at the RATAN-600 radio telescope the daily multiwavelength microwave observations of five solar active regions (AR), in which the X-class flares have been occurred in 2011-2012, have shown that the radio source above the neutral line of the magnetic field at photosphere became dominant in AR radiation 1-2 days (in some cases – 14-17 hours) prior to the X-class flare. It was projected onto the area with the densest clustering of spot umbrae with opposite signs of magnetic polarity. Magnetic measurements of these active regions, based on the SDO/HMI data, have shown that the strong X-class flares occurred at high level of sunspots magnetic flux (~1022 Mx) and at high increasing of the flux gradient (~20 • 1020 Mx/grad), which reflects the geometrical clustering of sunspots with opposite magnetic polarities. The obtained results can be used in prediction of powerful flares.

Magnetic field of the classical Cepheid eta Aql

V. Butkovskaya, S. Plachinda, D. Baklanova, V. Butkovskyi

Existence and possible pulsation modulation of the magnetic field on classical Cepheids are widely discussed since Babcock (1958) has reported the detection of a strong longitudinal magnetic field (LMF) in RR Lyr, which varies from −1580 to +540 G but shows no any correlation with 0.567-day pulsation period. Preston (1967), Chadid et al. (2004) detected no magnetic field on RR Lyr, but Romanov et al. (1987, 1994) registered the LMF that varied with amplitude up to 1.5 kG over the pulsation cycle.

The presence of the magnetic field on massive later-type supergiants was strongly proved by Plachinda (2005), who firstly reported the detection of the LMF on two yellow supergiants - eps Gem and eps Peg, and Grunhut et al. (2010) who detected clear Zeeman signatures in Stokes V for 9 later-type supergiants (including eta Aql), and suggest the complex topology of the magnetic fields. Both authors agree that the magnetic field on the later-type supergiants are presumably generated by dynamo action. The presence and pulsational modulation of the LMF on eta Aql was firstly reported by Plachinda (2000). Wade et al. (2002) detected no statistically significant LMF on eta Aql during 3 nights in 2002. We present the new results of LMF measurements during 65 nights from 2002 to 2012.

Solar magnetic field and activity cycles

A.G. Tlatov

Considered variations in solar activity and magnetic fields at various intervals of time and spatial scales. Solar cyclicity have set different periods. 11-year cycles of solar activity (Schwabe cycle). 22-year cycle of reversal polarity of the magnetic field (Hale cycle). Grand cycle with a period of approximately 55 years. This period is characterized by variation of solar rotation and changes in the relative area of sunspots umbra. Gleissberg cycle with a period ~100 years. This period is characterized for long-term variations in solar activity and the quantity of sunspots in sunspot groups. 230-year cycle, which there is a reversal Gnevyshev-Ohl rule. We study the changes in the magnetic fields of sunspots and large-scale fields associated with these periods.

Solar C abundance, magnetic fields, and solar metallicity

N. Shchukina, A. Sukhorukov, I. Vasilyeva

Carbon is one of the chemical elements of the CNO-group, which plays a cruicial role in determination of the metallicity of the Sun. A downward revision of the solar metallicity from Z/X = 2.75% to Z/X = 1.65% or to Z/X = 1.81% corresponds to an anomalously low sound speed in the Sun, which contradicts the leioseismological data (see Asplund et al. 2009 and references therein). The aim of our study is to investigate the impact on carbon abundance determination of including magnetic flux in series of 3D radiation-MHD snapshots. The models resulting from a magneto-convection simulation with surface dynamo action have an average vertical magnetic flux density of 0.5, 7.6, 51, and 80 G correspondingly. The presence of magnetic fields causes both a direct (Zeeman broadening) effect on spectral lines with non-zero Landé factor and an indirect effect on temperature-sensitive lines via a change in the photospheric height stratification. A differential approach is used to quantify the changes in theoretical equivalent width and, as consequence, abundance corrections for a set of 29 spectral lines of C I. The lines are spanning a wide range in wavelength, oscillator strength, Landé factor, and formation height.

Secular and 22-years variations of sunspot magnetic fields

K.A. Tlatova, V.V. Vasil'eva, A.G. Tlatov

We performed the digitization of sunspot magnetic fields Mount Wilson Observatory during 1917-2013. The data include the coordinates, area and magnetic field strength of sunspots. According to measurements magnetic field Mount Wilson and Crimea observatories studied long-term variations in the magnetic fields of spots. The analysis showed that there is a long-term variations of the magnetic field. The largest magnetic field strength observed in the beginning 20th and 21st centuries. The lowest mean magnetic field of sunspots observed in the 19th cycle. Magnetic fields in even cycles were stronger than in odd cycles. The relationship between the sunspot magnetic fields in the current cycle and the amplitude of the next activity cycle is considered.

Ground-based observations of solar magnetic fields

M.L. Demidov

Started at the beginning of the previous century, ground based observations of magnetic fields on the Sun are still very important despite of new powerful space missions have been appeared recently during a few decades. One of the obvious reasons for that is a necessity of long-term homogeneous data sets for exploration of evolutionary changes of solar magnetic fields properties. Because the room and weight limitations, which are so severe for space conditions, not so serious for ground based observatories, that allows to achieve good enough spatial and spectral resolution. Both these factors are crucially important for investigations of the very complicated spatial structure of solar magnetic fields.

Some the most important (from the author’s point of view) recent results of different kind ground-based observations are briefly reviewed in this talk. A special attention is given to description of the quiet magnetic field explorations, where quite new results are appeared recently. A separate section is devoted to observations of large-scale and sun-as-a-star magnetic fields, originally started by A.B. Severny with colleagues at the Crimean astrophysical observatories. Results of observations of active regions magnetic fields are presented as well. Finally, some new advanced telescope projects (ATST and other) are outlined to show an expected progress in ground-based observations of solar magnetic fields.

Magnetic fields in solar flares

V.G. Lozitsky

Detailed study of magnetic fields in solar flares were started firstly in Crimea Astrophysical Observatory under the direction of Prof. Severny A.B. Since end of 1950s many important results were obtained using mainly magnetographic method. In particular, it was shown that solar flares occur in active regions with complicate magnetic field structure and in places with high horizontal magnetic field gradient. As rule, after powerful flares the general field picture is simpler, and gradients are less, that indicates the magnetic field energy transformation into other energies of flares. In other hand, in some flares such changes do not observe, that can occur owing to essential difference between levels of magnetic field measurements (photosphere) and flare energy release (chromosphere and corona). Second possible reason – non-magnetic line profile changes which can product the false magnetograph signal. In this connection, spectral-polarized or Stokes-meter observations are needed for more correct diagnostics. The following problems are planned to discuss: 1) magnetic transients in flares; 2) their semi-empirical models, and 3) upper magnetic field strength limit in flares.

Magnetic field measurements by Hα and D3 HeI lines in 12 July 2004 solar active off-limb prominence using extended HAZEL code

O.O. Botygina, V.O. Masliukh, V.G. Lozitsky

The solar active off-limb prominence was observed by V.G. Lozitsky on 12 July 2004 08:48:50 UT on horizontal solar telescope of Astronomical Observatory of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv with echelle spectrograph using 18x24 cm ORWO WP3 photographic plate. This plate was processed by O.O. Botygina on microphotometer MF-4. As results, the I±V Stokes profiles Hα and D3 HeI lines of prominence on 11 different heights above the solar limb were obtained.

The HAZEL code (A. Asensio Ramos et al., ApJ, 2008) was extended by V.O. Masliukh for application to Hα line. We used this extended HAZEL code for modelling prominence’s physical conditions from obtained I±V Stokes profiles Hα and D3 HeI lines of prominence at few different heights above the solar limb. Modelling was prepared using one slab approximation.

From our analysis follows, that typical magnetic field strenghts in bright places of prominence was on level a few hundreds gauss.

Persistent kink oscillations in coronal loops

S.A. Anfinogentov, G. Nisticò, V.M. Nakariakov

Kink oscillations of coronal loops in an off-limb active region are detected with the Imaging Assembly Array (AIA) instruments of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) at 171~\AA. Periods and amplitudes of the kink oscillations of different loops are measured. Evolution of the oscillation phase along the oscillating loop is determined. Oscillating coronal loops are visually identified in the SDO/AIA and STEREO/EUVI-A field of view: the loop length is derived by three-dimensional analysis. Several slits were taken along the loops in order to make time-distance maps. We identified oscillatory patterns and retrieved periods and amplitudes of the oscillations. We applied cross-correlation technique in order to estimate the phase shift between oscillations at different segments of oscillating loops. We found that all analysed loops show low-amplitude undamped transverse oscillations. Periods of the oscillations of loops in the same active region range from 2.5 to 11 min, and are different for different loops. The displacement amplitude is low than 1~Mm. The oscillation phase is constant along each analysed loop. The spatial structure of the phase of the oscillations corresponds to the fundamental standing kink mode. We conclude that the observed behaviour is consistent with the empirical model in terms of a damped harmonic resonator affected by a non-resonant continuously-operating external force.

Precision measurements of stellar magnetic fields

S.I. Plachinda

A brief history of the development of devices and main methods for the precision measurements of stellar magnetic fields is presented.
Magnetometer (single line) (error is up to 5 G):
Severny, A. 1970. The Weak Magnetic Fields of Some Bright Stars. ApJ, 159, L73
Borra, E. F.; Landstreet, J. D. 1972. Coudé polarimeter measurements of weak magnetic fields in bright stars. Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, 66, 71
Multiline Zeeman polarimetric technique (multislit magnetometer) (error is up to 0.5 G):
Brown, D. N. and Landstreet, J. D. 1981. A search for weak longitudinal magnetic Fields on late-type stars. ApJ, 246, 899
STOKESMETER and CCD. Multiline analysis method (Least-Squares Deconvolution):
Donati, J.-F.; Semel, M.; Carter, B. D.; Rees, D. E.; Collier Cameron, A. 1997. Spectropolarimetric observations of active stars. MNRAS, 291, 658
Single line method:
Hubrig, S.; Plachinda, S. I.; Hunsch, M.; Schroder, K.-P. 1994. Search for magnetic fields in late-type giants. A&A, 291, 890

Star formation and magnetic field in spiral arms

Y.N. Efremov

About 10% of grand design spiral galaxies host the regular chains of star/gas complexes, mostly within arms without spiral shock waves signatures. Probably, such a wave (or the high star formation rate) destroys or tangles the regular magnetic fields. Most evident examples of such regular chains are known in M31 and our Galaxy. If the regular magnetic field along spiral arms is rare phenomenon, this explains the rare occurence of star complexes chains along the arms (because the purely gravitational instability along arms is omnipresent).

The abundance of lithium on the Sun.

E.A. Baranovsky, S.A. Musorina, V.P. Tarashchuk

This study is a continuation of the cycle of papers concerning the determination of solar lithium abundance. The results of lithium abundance determination by the use of the observed sunspot spectra are presented. The spectra have been received on the TST-2 telescope of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory with CCD-camera in January 2011. The results of our previous investigations and also the investigations of other researchers have reveiled the dependence of the value of lithium abundance on the phase of solar cycle. The value of lithium abundance determined by the sunspot spectra in the region of 6708 A line, is bigger in the periods of minimums by about 0.4 dex as compared with the values wich refer to the periods of maximums. This study gives the value of 0.98 dex wich do not contradict to the regularity, revealed earlier.

Active regions in the minimum of the cycle: the electric currents

I.Y. Grigoryeva, A.N. Shakhovskaya, M.A. Livshits

Active regions (AR’s) of the past prolonged deep minimum of solar activity are studied. Several AR’s were revealed in which no flares more powerful than B3 were observed. The radio emission of such AR’s (e.g. AR 10999, June 2008) detected by the RATAN-600 was very weak and virtually no polarization was detected. The shapes of the coronal loops of these AR’s correspond fairly well to the shapes of magnetic field lines calculated in a potential approximation. Beside AR’s without of the current, the currents exist in the most of AR’s 2007-2011 where weak flares occur episodically. The H_alpha and the soft X-ray emission in these AR’s are increases and there is polarized a small source. This site is often a place where new magnetic flux emerges (8.01.2007, AR 10933). Extrapolation for the magnetic field based on observations of the total vector magnetic field (Hinode data) shows enhancement of the current density in the low corona where the polarized source locates (fulfilled together with Rudenko and Myshyakov, Astron. Rept. 2013). Proximity of AR’s to a coronal hole makes difficult development of activity although above mentioned polarized source is sometimes observed.

Properties of behavuar of different physical and chemical systems and their connection with the space parameters.

E.A. Baranovsky, V.P. Tarashchuk, B.M. Vladimirsky

A study and comparison of behaviour of the simple physical-chemical systems- Ficroy retort (17-years period), torsion pendulum, streams of r-n transition in a standard microcircuit, measurements of radioactive-decay, change of colour of korinebakteriy (phenomenon of metachromoze)-have been performed. The common regularities in physical and chemical kinetics of different processes with the use of different measure devices have been observed.

It is found that the variations of the parameters of different systems take place as a rule synchronously and have dependence on sun activity, processes in interplanetary space and geosphere. Annual changes in different systems show the similarity with variations of the module of the interplanetary magnetic field, common magnetic field of a Sun ( as a star) and a speed of solar wind.

The influence of changing of polarity of Interplanetary Magnetic Field on the dynamics of physical-chemical systems is also found.

Advances in dynamo mechanisms of solar cycles

V.N. Krivodubskij

In my report I will analyze some aspects of the observed regularities and anomalies of the solar magnetic activity on the basis of the alpha-Omega dynamo-mechanism with the newest helioseismically determined inner rotation of the Sun. First aspect is devoted to a discussion of magnetic buoyancy and strong fields storage in the solar interior. Then I explore two "magnetic antibuoyancy" effects, namely turbulent diamagnetism and magnetic field transport caused by vertical inhomogeneity of the matter density (with allowance for the rotation). After that the reconstruction of the toroidal field is examined based on the balance between the mean-field buoyancy and the anti buoyancy effects. Next section deals with the change of the sign of the alpha-effect near the bottom of the solar convection zone (SCZ). Further I estimate the dynamo-period of the solar magnetic cycle in the nonlinear dynamo regime. An explanation of the mystery of the extended 23rd solar cycle duration about 13 years in the frame of non-linear regime of the alpha-Omega-dynamo model is proposed. We found the following equation for the dependence of solar dynamo-period on magnetic index Bsp (the averaged annual module of the magnetic field of the large-scale sunspots): T ≈ Bsp3/2. Lozitskaja et al. (2007) according to study about 2,000 measurements at four observatories discovered that the magnetic index Bsp at the maximum of the 23rd cycle was increased on ≈13% as against the cycle minimum. Under this condition the dynamo-period of the 23rd cycle is bound to prolong by a factor of 1,2 in comparison with previous cycles. With the assumption that the average solar cycle duration is about 11 year, the calculated 23rd cycle dynamo-period to be about 13 years.

Dynamics of solar photospheric granular and facular regions by means of correlation tracking codes developed in Python

J.I. Campos-Rozo, S. Vargas-Dominguez

Observations of the solar surface in white light evidence the presence of a wide variety of structures at different spatial and temporal scales. Apart from the largely studied sunspots, dark structures associated to strong magnetic fields, there are also bright features referred to as faculae. Faculae, though not as intense as in sunspots, were also shown to be associated with strong magnetic fields and are responsible for the increased solar irradiance during periods of strong solar activity and hence an increased number of sunspots. The dynamics of facular regions and they interplay with solar photospheric granulation is studied in this work.

Computational advances have improved the satellite image analysis and new languajes are constantly being implemented to optimize this process. Python, for instance, is a powerful recently developed programming language that is now increasingly used due to its outstanding characteristics and performance for data analysis. An interesting effort to create an open-source software for Solar Physics using Python is called Sunpy. New tools are being developed in Sunpy, in particular we are interested in developing a local correlation tracking algorithm to infer the dynamics of solar features, i.e. faculae.

Magnetic field and spectral duality of Theta 1 Ori C

E.L. Chentsov

Theta1 Ori C is the massive binary system with two groups of spectral lines in the spectrum (SB2). The primary component has a magnetic field that deforms its circumstellar envelope and cjnsequently line profiles. The impact of the last effect upon the curve of radial velocity is discussed.

Stellar wind as a key to the understanding of spectral activity of IN Com

O.V. Kozlova, I.Yu. Alekseev

We present long-time spectral observations (R = 20000) of IN Com in the region of Hα, Hβ and He I 5876 lines. The unique character of stellar spectrum is the presence in the Hα line the extended two-component emission with limits reached ±400 km/s. Emission parameters show the rotation modulation with the stellar rotation period and a significant long-term variability. Similar emission is observed also in Hβ and He I 5876 lines. Our results allow to conclude that observational emission profiles are formed in optically thin hot gas. It is a result of presence around IN Com circumstellar gas disk. Its size is not exceed some stellar radii. The material for the disk is supported by stellar wind. The found variability of Hα emission parameters shows evident connection with photopolarimetric activity of the star. This fact allows us to connect the long-term spectral variability with cycles of stellar activity of IN Com.

On the peculiarity of the asymmetry of solar activity during different time interval

U. Leiko

We report the results of the analysis of the north-south asymmetry of solar activity, solar magnetic fields. The analysis is based on the greenwich sunspot data time series and large-scale solar magnetic field time series. The analysis of cumulative sums of this time series is revealed long-term periodicity of solar activity. So, the time behavior of cumulative sum of north-south asymmetry derived from the monthly averages of the daily sunspot areas selects long period of about 160 years. The peculiarity of the asymmetry of solar activity during last three cycles is discussed.

Relationship between magnetic fields and processes in active regions on the Sun and late-type stars: from A.B. Severny’s epoch to the present time

M.A. Livshits, M.M. Katsova

We consider a few topics from area of Severny’ interest: location of flare kernels, change of magnetic fields associated with flares, a role of electric currents in active regions (ARs) and flares. Data with SoHO/MDI, registration of the full vector of the magnetic field with Hinode/SOT and SDO/HMI on the photosphere and new methods of their analysis show directly that the magnetic field changes prior and after a flare. This allows us to improve the estimate of flare energy on the Sun and late-type stars using, for instance, the virial theorem (Metcalf et al. 2008). Approximation of magnetic fields up to the corona gives a chance to recover spatial structures of ARs and to conclude that location of flare kernels is associated with the bundle of current threads concentrating above the polarity inversion line (PIL) in the photosphere. For the strongest solar flares, the effective particle acceleration occurs directly above spots (Livshits, Belov 2003; Grechnev et al. 2008). We can conclude more definitely that stellar flares and CME are analogous to solar ones while those on subgiants and giants are close to solar flares above PIL, but red dwarf phenomena remind those above sunspots.

Negative helical turbulent viscosity and hear role in formation of magnetic flux tubes on the Sun

V.N. Krivodubskij

The negative turbulent viscosity at certain conditions may play an important role in reconstruction of the Sun’s magnetic fields. It turns out that helical motions in the rotating convection zone provide the origin of inversion energy cascade in three-dimensional turbulence, which results in the negative viscosity phenomenon. Our calculations based on turbulent parameters by two models of the solar convection zone (SCZ) showed that near-by the bottom of the SCZ turbulent convective cells can spiral twisted large-angle. Hereupon in the deep solar layers the favourable conditions are created for excitation of negative helical turbulent viscosity the value of which reaches the one-third of value of the coefficient of scalar turbulent viscosity. Therefore it must promote to a great extent to the substantial concentration of the magnetic fields in thin isolated magnetic flux tubes.

Multipassband photometric mapping of spotted stars

A.I. Kolbin, V.V. Shimansky, N.A. Sakhibullin

Program codes for multipassband photometric mapping of spotted stars were developed. Two approaches for starspot mapping were adapted. In first approach stellar surface is mapped by circular spots which parameters are determined by fitting of the observed light curve. In second approach the stellar surface is divided into small areas on which the temperature distribution is searched. In both approaches the results of stellar atmospheres theory are used for stellar surface imaging. Numerical simulations of the photometric stellar surface reconstruction were performed. Advantages and disadvantages of the photometric mapping relative to Doppler imaging are discussed. Results of application of photometric mapping technique to some spotted stars are presented.

Activity in outer atmospheres and spottedness of late-type stars

N.I. Bondar, M.M. Katsova

The relation between activity levels at different layers of the outer stellar atmosphere provides information on impact of magnetic fields of various scales. Indices of the chromospheric and coronal activity are analyzed together with data of photometric variability of late-type stars. The bulk set of considered stars belong to BY Dra-type and they are characterized by the same relationship between levels of the chromospheric and coronal activity. But there is some number of the younger stars with activity levels close to the saturation. From the other side some of stars possess a low chromospheric activity and their coronal activity is much higher than that on the Sun. For these stars activity of the outer atmosphere is compared with the relative area of spots responsible for the rotational modulation. There are evidences that the coronal X-rays are only associated with a high value of the relative spot area. It means that during the evolution of activity the coronal radiation related to local magnetic fields changes slowly, while the chromospheric emission associated with large-scale structures of magnetic fields is strongly attenuated.

Critical analysis of standard approach to solar flare physics

L. Pustil’nik, N. Ikhsanov, N. Beskrovnaya

When solar flare theory started in early 60s, two alternative approaches were developed: one based on the pinch effect considered a solar flare as plasma accumulation by magnetic pressure into fine pinch strings structure (A.B. Severny), while another (magnetic reconnection approach) assumed a flare to be produced by anomalous field reconnection at the neutral line of global magnetic configuration in the vicinity of magnetic singularities (S.I. Syrovatsky). Most of the currently accepted models are based on the second approach and approximate equilibrium preflare structure with a large-scale potential and force-free magnetic field with singular points/lines on the boundaries between neighboring structures.
High-resolution observations of the last years (SOHO, SDO, TRACE, HINODE) definitely show that observed coronal UV and X-ray structures include as basic elements numerous (tens to hundreds) thin plasma-magnetic threads-arcs with constant cross-section from the photosphere to corona (which favors an existence of constant magnetic field of several hundred gauss inside these arcs up to the coronal heights). The presence of pinch-type non-force-free elements with strong interaction between neighboring threads revealed by these observations requires going back to the approach of A.B. Severny. An incorporation of these non-force-free elements into the MHD description of equilibrium of the observed configuration leads us to a dynamical rather than statistical equilibrium of field configuration as it was believed before. Resulting equilibrium of this complex of strongly interacting elements can be considered as magnetic energy percolation through the network of pinch-type fine magnetic elements with specific for this process critical states and phase transition of the system as a whole. The transition of this system into flaring state can be triggered by external disturbances similar to ballooning modes of flute instability of prominences and/or coronal condensations. Tearing-mode and MHD instabilities as well as the effects of overheating of the turbulent current sheet prevent the field from reconnecting steadily in local areas at the singularities as it is suggested in the canonical scenario. We speculate around the assumption that the energy release in active regions is governed by the same scenario as dynamical current percolation through a random resistor’s network in which the saltatory conduction is controlled by a local current level.

Solar Magnetic Activity as Driver of Causal Chain “Solar Activity-Space Weather-Earth Atmospheric Abnormalities-Agriculture Market Reaction”: necessary conditions and possible scenarios

L. Pustil’nik

Solar magnetic activity is driver of Space Weather on all time scales from seconds up to thousands years. Main transmissions in this mechanism are: a) solar wind (SW) modulated earth magnetosphere and flux of cosmic ray (CR) from Galaxy, b) solar UV controlled high atmosphere. Numerous arguments were obtained during last decade confirmed existence of space weather impact on the Earth weather resulted to weather abnormalities. Evidently, that for regions with high risk agriculture state these abnormalities are able to lead to impact on crop and on state of agriculture market.
It is shown that to implement the possible effect of space weather on the terrestrial harvests and prices, a simultaneous fulfillment of three conditions is required: 1) sensitivity of local weather (cloud cover, atmospheric circulation) to the state of space weather; 2) sensitivity of the area-specific agricultural crops to the weather anomalies (belonging to the area of risk farming); 3) relative isolation of the market, making it difficult to damp the price hikes by the external food supplies. Four possible scenarios of the market response to the modulations of local terrestrial weather via the solar activity are described. The data sources and analysismethods applied to detect this relationship are characterized. We describe the behavior of 22 European markets during the medieval period, in particular, during the Maunder minimum (1650–1715). We demonstrate a reliable manifestation of the influence of space weather on prices, discovered in the statistics of intervals between the price hikes and phase price asymmetry. We show that the effects of phase price asymmetry persist even during the early modern period in the U.S. in the production of the durum wheat semolina. Within the proposed approach, we analyze the statistics of depopulation in the eighteenth and nineteenth century Iceland, induced by the famine due to a sharp livestock reduction owing to, in its turn, the lack of foodstuff due to the local weather anomalies. A high statistical significance of temporal matching of these events with the periods of extreme solar activity is demonstrated. We discuss the possible consequences of the observed global climate change in the formation of new areas of risk farming, sensitive to space weather.

Peculiarities of the multidipole structures of the CP stars magnetic fields

Yu.V. Glagolevskij, E. Gerth

Up to now 60 magnetic CP stars were modeled with the “magnetic dipole” method. Almost all stars have the field structures of shifted from the star center. About 17% of stars have structures formed by two or three dipoles. The results of modeling show that the magnetic field structures of CP stars are formed by a dipole it can be called a “long dipole”. This shows that the violation of the dipole structure in central region of star takes place. Some stars have strongly deformed structures, the dipole shift from the center reaches a value of half radius. The influence of a convective core, which is large in B0-A5 stars is not excluded. Most likely, the deformation of magnetic fields can occur due to a complex structure of protostellar clouds as well as due the falling of large accreting masses at early stages of evolution. As the full magnetic flux of a star practically does not change during its entire stay at the Main Sequence, it means that there are no addition sources of its destruction, such as meridional circulation, differential rotation and other large-scale currents. A large variety of structures and values of magnetic fields does not contradict the hypothesis of a relic character of formation of magnetic fields from turbulent, strongly irregular magnetized protostellar clouds.

The shot-periodic eclipsing magnetic cataclysmic variable 1RXS J184542+483134

E. Pavlenko, K. Antonyuk, V. Malanushenko, A. Shchurova, A. Baklanov, M. Gabdeev, K. Sokolovsky

We present the identification of the ROSAT object 1RXS J184542+483134 as the magnetic cataclysmic variable and discovery of the eclipse of compact emission region on the white dwarf by the secondary component. Observations in 2011 - 2012 have shown that there could be transition from a one-pole to two-pole accretion depending on different accretion state.

Cycles of solar activity in Northern and Southern hemispheres

M.I. Ryabov

In represented work the basic properties of a solar cycle based on the analysis of the daily data on numbers of Wolf - W, the total area of sunspots - Sp and flare index - FI separately for northern and southern hemispheres are considered. The application procedure of wavelet analysis is developed for studying spatially- time formation of a solar cycle in both hemispheres. It is shown that development of a solar cycle on the basis of the received results of “spectra periods” in northern and southern hemispheres descend basically in the independent way and differ for all investigated indexes. On all investigated indexes “spectra periods” presence long periodically components (1-4 years) and a short periodically fluctuation (less than 1 year) the interrelation between which changes from a cycle to a cycle and in each cycle. Basic phases of a solar cycle on each index are defined on the basis of a kind wavelet spectrum. Its maxima on all phases of a cycle grow out of addition of bunch of oscillatory processes with the various periods. The indicative fact is revealing possibility of “life time” separate “leading periods” and their change at transferring from one cycle to another.

Meridional flow velocities for solar-like stars with known activity cycles

D.N. Baklanova, S.I. Plachinda

The dependence of the mean meridional flow velocity on the Sun on number of the Hale cycle (Plachinda et al., 2011, AN, 332, 918) was obtained under the assumption that during the Hale cycle the pass track of the magnetic dipole axis is equivalent to the circumference of the Sun and the duration of the magnetic cycle is equal to the sum of neighboring activity cycles length. This assumption may be presented as PHale=2πR/(<v>×T), where R=6.955×108 m is the solar radius, <v> is the mean meridional flow velocity in meters per second, T=365.256×24×3600 sy-1 is seconds per year. In addition, the velocity <v>=6.28 ms-1, which gives PHale=22 years for the Sun, for solar-like star 61 Cyg A gave the activity period 7.3 years that is in the full agreement with observations.
The direct observations of the meridional flow velocities on stars are impossible today. Therefore we supposed that the matter on a surface of solar-like stars with known stable activity period, during the own Hale cycle, also passes the way equal to 2πR. Using data from literature for these stars we presented the dependence of the mean value of meridional flow velocity on Rossby number, which is an effective parameter of the stellar magnetic dynamo.
We have found that the mean value of meridional flow velocities <v> for selected sample of solar-like stars lies near 5.1±1.5 ms-1 and does not depend on the Rossby number. The three stars from 28 show greater values of meridional flow velocity.
In addition, we picture the dependence of the mean chromospheric emission ratio R'HK on Rossby number for our sample stars. We used two different empirical methods for calculation of the convective turnover time τc: 1) τc as a function of color index B-V (Noyes et al., 1984) and 2) τc as a function of stellar masses M (Wright et al., 2011).

The MHD evolution of plasma in the zone of contact of oppositely directed magnetic fields and “artificial objects” in the solar atmosphere

L.M. Alekseeva, S.P. Kshevetskii

The images of the Solar sometimes show the presence of structures taken by some people as a sort of “artificial objects” of ufological character. The “objects’ body” can stretch out its “proboscis” or “gun-tube” to the Sun’s surface and even “shoot” at it. The specialists have already indicated that a prominence or chromospheric magnetic tornado viewed from an angle could make such visual impression.
We note here that structures demonstrating the appearance and dynamical behavior described may also be produced by the pinch effect emitting plasma jets along the electric current in the zone of contact of oppositely directed magnetic fields. They manifest themselves in our numerical experiments on the base of solving a fully self-consistent initial-value (Cauchy) problem for nonlinear 2D system of MHD equations for collisional plasma and horizontal magnetic field with taking into account electric and thermo conduction. When the plasma is assumed to be initially motionless and having a temperature of 50 000 K the structures exist during about several minutes as transient phenomena before erosion of the magnetic fields contact zone. The appearance and behavior of the structures at different magnetic fields are discussed.

CrAO and space missions in the context of International Virtual Observatory

M.A. Gorbunov, A.A. Shlyapnikov

The project CrAVO started in 2011. CrAVO – is a portal for databases and catalogues, developed in SRI CrAO, available online. Data archive of the CrAVO includes information on more than 40 projects: from gamma ray to radio wavelength. Creating the databases associated with the history research's developed of the CrAO is one of the priorities of the project CrAVO. Space research in the CrAO began simultaneously with the launch of the first artificial Earth satellite in 1957. They have been developed in several key areas: creation of on-board equipment for astronomical research; observation satellites and space debris, laser ranging; the navigation support for space experiments; ground-space observations of astronomical objects. In this thesis, we present a prototype database for space experiments and observations by space and ground facilities of various objects made in the CrAO. Special attention is given to the interaction of CrAVO databases with applications IVO.

X-class flares during solar cycle 24: pre-flare and post-flare conditions in active regions

Yu.A. Fursyak

The analysis of data on X-class solar flares during solar cycle 24 is presented. Variations in sunspot magnetic fields, their redistribution for 6-10 hours before and 6-10 hours after the flare were studied. A number of characteristics of the active region (morphological structure, dynamics of development, etc.) were also analyzed in order to identify factors having the greatest effect on the group activity. To acquire maximum information there were used data from different levels of the solar atmosphere, obtained using both ground-based and space (SOHO, SDO, XRT, Hinode, etc.) observations.

Synhronization of "Long Kondratiev waves" by Cosmic weather'

B.M. Vladimirsky

Pulkovo series of restorationed Wolf numbers was used to study the synhronization of autooscillations in world economic system "Long Kondratiev waves" - by cosmic weather' variations. It was found that the signs of stable synhronization may be observed from 16 century. The regularities revealed allow to search these waves up to 13 century. Mean period is 54.9 years. Primary factor maintaining synhronous routine are periodical changes in solar wind parameters (including interplanetary magntetic field). Using corresponding indeces it was shown that many important parameters are changing regularly within Kondratiev' wave: creative production in sciences and fine arts, style features in the musics and architecture, military activity. It's noticed that this period is presented in ancient calendar systems: animal's 60-years cycle of turkic steppes, 52-years period in mayan calendar. The main conclusion is: 55-year is probably the most important cycle of social life.

Coronal Magnetic Fields: Dynamics and Activity

A.V. Stepanov

Coronal magnetic loops are typical structure of active regions on the Sun and stars. Substantial part of coronal seismology is based on the idea of Alfvén about the coronal loop as an equivalent electric circuit. This approach is quite effective diagnostic tool for dynamics of stellar flaring events especially for dynamics of electric currents and magnetic fields. LRC-circuit model of a flaring loop explains quasi-periodical pulsations in various objects, from the Sun to the neutron stars. Examples of diagnostics of parameters of flaring loops on the Sun, red dwarfs, and magnetars are given.

Suspected spot cycles in dKe-dMe stars

N.I. Bondar'

Magnetic activity is a common property of low main-sequence stars. According to the age and structure we may distinguish inactive, active and high active stars. Indicators of activity in different layers of the atmosphere give clear evidences that dKe-stars are the most active among the dwarfs. Some stars demonstrate long cycles, of 60-80 years, but this scale is comparable with an observing time-base and has considered as a long trend. Short cycles operate on a scale similar to the average 11-yrs long solar cycle or shorter. The common feature for the Sun and some stars is multiperiodic variations of cyclic lengths and power. It is a question what cycle is a basic one and modulates activity of a star. Progress in the study of stellar magnetic activity and responsible processes is connected with further systematic observations of different groups of stars.

Measuring chromospheric magnetic field with ALMA

M. Loukitcheva

We use simulated millimeter brightness calculated from recent 3D models of the quiet-Sun regions and from classical sunspot models to estimate the magnetic field at the chromospheric heights of these regions. We discuss the results of this investigation in the light of the future solar Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations.

Stellar flares and activity

R.E. Gershberg

Different aspects of stellar flares as one of events of stellar activity of different closeness to the solar activity phenomena are shortly discussed: those which are understandable by means of scaling of the solar events, or those which are absent on the Sun but general solar features allow us to understand them, or such stellar events which have not been understood yet up to the present day.

White flare on August 9, 2011

A.N. Babin, A.N. Koval

We consider evolutionary, morphological and spectral characteristics of the white light and H-alpha emission of the most powerful up to the present flare of cycle 24 (X-class H6.9, maximum at 08:05 UT) in the active region NOAA 11263, the coordinates N18 W 70.

Oscillation spectra of rapidly-oscillating magnetic stars

D. Mkrtichian

I will give a review talk on recent studies of oscillation spectra of rapidly-oscillating magnetic stars obtained from high-precision radial velocity studies.

The role of magnetic fields in activity of T Tauri stars

P.P. Petrov

T Tauri stars (TTS) are pre-main sequence objects of low mass (<~2.5 Msun) at the age of <~10 Myr. They are distinguished by their light variability and emission line spectra. TTS have kG surface magnetic fields responsible for the appearance of dark spots covering substantial fraction of the stellar surface, which results in periodical (rotational) modulation of stellar brightness. Magnetic activity of TTS is also manifested in X-ray flares and hard X-ray emission spectrum indicating the coronal temperatures (10e7 K).
The classical T Tauri stars (cTTS) possess accretion disks which are truncated by stellar magnetic fields at a distance of a few stellar radii. The flows of ionized gas, loaded into magnetosphere, are magnetically channeled from the inner edge of the disk to stellar surface, where a high temperature (~10e6 K) shock arises. The stochastic magnetospheric accretion causes the observed irregular variability in emission line spectrum and brightness of the star. Accretion is also responsible for the powerful winds, magnetically collimated into jets.
The magnetic coupling between the stellar magnetosphere and the inner edge of the accretion disk results in regulation of angular momentum of low mass stars during the T Tauri phase of their evolution. When the accretion is terminated, a magnetized stellar wind continue to brake stellar rotation. The physical parameters of the cTTS's accretion and winds can be derived from high-resolution optical and NIR spectroscopy. The mass accretion rate is typically within log Mdot = -9 to -7 Msun/yr, and the mass loss rate is an order of magnitude lower.

Chromospheric evaporation and pitch-angle diffusion of trapped electrons in solar flare coronal loops

Yu.T. Tsap, Yu.G. Kopylova, A.V. Stepanov

Peculiarities of time profiles of hard X-ray and microwave emissions within the framework of the trap-plus-precipitation model are studied. Using the continuity equation it has been shown that the behavior of time profiles of microwave and hard X-ray emissions caused by trapped and precipitated accelerated electrons, respectively, strongly depends on changes of the mean lifetime of trapped electrons during a pulse. Based on the obtained results the origin of time delays between peaks of microwave and hard X-ray emissions as well as the role of Coulomb collisions in the process of the pitch-angle diffusion of trapped electrons in flare coronal loops are discussed. Evidences for a dominant role of the turbulent scatterings of accelerated particles in solar flare coronal loops have been obtained.

On the correlation of solar energetic particles with coronal mass ejection velocities and solar radio bursts

Yu.T. Tsap, E.A. Isaeva

The relationships between the solar energetic particle (SEP) intensities I and the coronal mass ejection velocities V as well as the parameters of type II and type IV radio bursts in the frequency range of 25-180 GHz obtained for 62 proton events with GOES, SOHO/LASCO, and RSTN, respectively, which are observed from 1996 to 2012 are studied. It has been shown that the correlation coefficient between I and V is r = 0.78 while r between I and the parameters of radio bursts does not exceed 0.4. This suggests an important role of shock waves in the process of SEP acceleration during flare proton events.

Cosmic weather variations as a cause of the artefacts in precise measurements

A.V. Bruns, B.M. Vladimirsky

The analysis of the data, accumulated on the installation "Exact" (2000-2011 years) lead to common conclusion about wide spreading of cosmic weather effects as the causes of appearing of the instabilities in the apparatus. Such type false variations are quasiperiodical changes (within of some interval of the periods) of some parameters of the equipment, which usually considered as constant. These changes as a roul very small (not more 1%), but its are presenting nearly always. Naw such phenomena are revealed reliably in precise measurements of radioactivity, cosmic rays, of some fundamtntal physical constants, as specificial noise in GPS, in statistics accident rate in the aviation. According modern models acting physical agent in all these effects are electromagnetic fields (radiowaves) of very low frequencies, mainly magnitospheric origin. For indication all such variations the data about solar wind velosity may be used (as well the measurements of interplanetary magnetic fields - as A.B. Severny first noticed). It is not clear may be artefacts considered are excluded in common in the future, when exactness of the measurements will be larger.

The polar coronal holes and solar activity cycle

N.N. Stepanian, N.I. Shtertser

Area of coronal holes, located on the solar latitudes above 60 degrees, were compared with the evolution of large-scale solar magnetic fields. We found that the change of coronal holes area associated with the change of the sign of the polar fields at the maximum cycle.

High-resolution studies of the solar magnetism and dynamics

A.G. Kosovichev

The New Solar Telescope (NST) at the Big Bear Solar Observatory is used to observe the photosphere, chromosphere and up to the transition region with unprecedented resolution to elucidate the fundamental nature of the dynamics of solar magnetism and its evolution. Equipped with adaptive optics the NST is capable to study phenomena that have been beyond our grasp until now. The initial results include discoveries of ubiquitous small-scale intergranular jets, ultrafine magnetic loops reaching up from intergranular lanes to the base of the corona, and provide detailed sub-arcsecond flow maps and vector magnetograms of sunspots, flares, other magnetic phenomena on the Sun. The observational results are compared with 3D radiative MHD simulations.

Mean magnetic field of the Sun: measurements 2004-2012

V.I. Haneychuk, V.A. Kotov

The mean magnetic field (MMF) of the photosphere of the Sun-as-a-star is being measured in the CrAO since 1968. The new measurements performed in 2004-2012 using the spectral absorption line Fe ${\sc i}$ $\lambda$525.0 nm are presented and analysed (1066 daily values). They are of interest for studies of the magnetic variability of the Sun, its rotation and activity cycles. The attention is paid to significant discrepancies between the MMF strengths obtained almost simultaneously in the CrAO and Stanford, and also in the CrAO using the two lines of neutral iron, $\lambda$525.0 and $\lambda$524.7 nm (with Lande factors 3 and 2, respectively). Possible causes of discrepancies are discussed.

To question on spectrum of the radiation of extragalactic objects

Yu. I. Neshpor, A.V. Zhovtan

It is shown that, on the one hand, active galactic nuclei radiate in broad energy range. On the other hand, during some perturbation the generation of radiation occurs in relatively narrow energy range i.e. must exist such mechanism, which provides the radiation only in gamma range high or very high energy, moreover higher-energy particles accelerated more effectively.

Persistence of low density regions in the atmosphere of some sunspots

D.A. Bezrukov, B.I. Ryabov

Persistent plasma upflows have been reported [1] at the outer edges of some solar active regions. Dark areas in soft X-ray and EUV line emission overlap these areas of plasma outflows. The dark areas imply the low plasma density in the sunspot atmosphere. We try to trace the regions of low plasma density in the atmosphere of the large isolated sunspots on the base of 17 GHz maps taken with the Nobeyama Radio Heliograph. Both the strong magnetic field and the low plasma density are the origins of low 17 GHz radio brightness in the ordinary mode. We estimate the plasma density to be of $\sim 10^9 cm^{-3}$ with the near radial magnetic field. As the 17 GHz radio brightness in ordinary mode increases with the helio longitude due to the projection effects, the observations in the absorption line He I 10830 $\AA $ are chosen to trace the region of low plasma density when the sunspot is far from the central solar meridian.
[1] L. K. Harra et al., Ap. J., 676, L147 (2008)

Cyclic variations of the areas and magnetic fields of solar spots and groups

N.I. Lozitska

The published data of the world observatories are compared and the average annual areas of sunspot groups and the maximum annual area values of sunspot groups, as well as indexes of magnetic fields of large sunspots and groups are calculated. The interannual variations of all listed parameters are investigated. The correlation analysis of rows of the magnetic field and the area of unit sunspots and groups was carried out. We obtained good accordance of secular variations of the all listed intensive indexes of sun activity.

Scientific School by A.B. Severnyj: basic ideas, present status, and prosperity

I.B. Vavilova, N.N. Stepanian

The research related to the scientific astronomical school by A.B. Severnyj is presented. This school covers such areas of solar physics as the physical conditions in frame of theory of radiation transfer, magnetic fields of the Sun and stars, radio astronomical research of the Sun, space research of the Sun, helio instrument-making. The "genealogical tree" of this international scientific school which numbers about 100 personalities is given. The basic ideas by A.B. Severnyj which have lead to the foundation of this school, its present status, and development perspective are discussed.

Superheavy elements in atmospheres of magnetic stars

L.S. Lyubimkov

Problem of superheavy chemical elements in magnetic stars was one of the problems, which have been of special interest for A.B. Severny in his studies of such stars. In the present short review the abundances of very heavy elements (U, Hg, Bi and others) in atmospheres of magnetic stars are discussed. Data accumulated during 30 years show that the large overabundances of these elements, up to 5-6 dex, are typical for these stars. These data are obtained from spectra of the stars both in visual and ultraviolet regions. Some possible future studies are outlined briefly.

Methodical problems of magnetic field measurements in sunspot umbra

N.I. Lozitska, N.N. Stepanian, V.G. Lozitsky, O.A. Andreyeva, Z.S. Akhtemov, V.M. Malashchuk, V.A. Perebeynos, N.I. Shtertser

Systematic observation of peak magnetic field strength in sunspots were started in Crimea Аstrophysical observatory by A.B. Severny, V.E. Stepanov and N.N. Petrova in May 1955.
High accuracy of visual measurements is accessible via some specific conditions. First of all, reliable magnetic field measurements are only possible if sunspot diameter is, at least, 2.5-3 times more than atmospheric streaks. Second, because magnetic fields in large sunspots have 6-8 min oscillations, the real peak of sunspot field should be measured during more than 6 min observations. Third requirement is exact empirical calibration of line-shifter, which can be made by using a row of narrow telluric lines in proximity.
We compared all measurements carried out on solar telescope BST-2 of Crimea astrophysical observatory in 2010-2012. Good agreement of results by different observers was obtained for measurement of magnetic fields from above 1000 G. This lower limit allows to calculate not only magnetic field index for large sunspots Bsp , but also index of the maximum magnetic fields of sunspot groups Bmax from 1100 G. Observations on Horizontal solar telescope of Kyiv University astronimical observatory are suitable for calculations of Bsp index only.

Theoretical model of the deep structure of the Earth’s mantle

A.L. Kharitonov, G.P. Kharitonova

Using measurements of the magnetic field on the MAGSAT spacecraft vertical sections of various physical parameters of a deep structure of the mantle for the northern hemisphere of the Pacific region, on the basis of the solution of the inverse problem of geomagnetic potential and classical equations of electromagnetic dynamics were constructed. In particular according to geomagnetic satellite data vertical geoelectric and geothermal sections of not uniformity of the mantle up to the depth of 1700 km were constructed. The analysis of vertical sections of other physical parameters of substance of the mantle, also calculated according to experimental satellite geomagnetic data and some data on acceleration of gravity showed that the main physical layer of the mantle of the Pacific region where there are various temperature and baric changes of substance of the mantle is the transitional zone from upper to the bottom mantle. The obtained results of calculations show that in the Pacific region the upper mantle is rather cold. Probably considerable dot warming up of substance in a transitional zone of the mantle is associated with the raised maintenance of radioactive elements in this layer.

Stellar variability, accretion and wind phenomenon

V.P. Grinin

The disk wind is an important element of the disk accretion. It plays a key role in removing the excess angular momentum from accretion disks and contributes to the slow motion of the disk matter toward the star. In my talk I will review the observational manifestations of the disk winds in young stars. The following topics will be considered in more details: i) the contribution of the disk wind to the emission spectra of young stars, and ii) the contribution of the dust component of the disk wind to the circumstellar extinction and variability of the UX Ori type stars.

Prognose of 24th solar activity cycle from short distance to its maximum

V.M. Efimenko, V.G. Lozitsky

A few ten prognoses of solar activity are presently offered for current cycle No. 24. In general, different authors propose very different prognoses, with smooted sunspot number in maximum Wmax in range 50–190. Times of maximums are also very different – from 2010 to 2014.
Likely, this differences does not reflect any defects of methods which were used by different authors – one reflects a very complicated nature of solar activity. From observational point of view, it has partly determined, partly stochastic character. Due to stochastic component, our forecasts, in general, are so much the worse than is larger the time interval between last observational data and a prognosis. In this connection, namely last data are needed for the most reliable prognosis.
We have compared phases of growth for all 24 cycles and come to the conclusion that current cycle will be irregular – similar to cycles Nos. 1, 5, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 16, which had non-monotonous phase of growth. The most probable parameters of maximum for 24th cycle are: Wmax (24) = 80, and time of maximum – first half of 2014. From this point of view, current cycle will be similar to cycle No. 12 (1878–1889).

Rotation of sunspots in solar active region NOAA 10930

O.S. Gopasyuk

We present the result of investigations into the rotation of sunspots of AR 10930 obtained by the Solar Optical Telescope on the board Hinode. On the observations of the longitudinal magnetic and velocity fields the vertical, radial and azimuthal axisymmetrical components of both field vectors have been reconstructed for the both sunspots. The existence of an azimuthal component of velocity argues that the sunspots rotate. The existence of an azimuthal component of a magnetic field means that the lines of force are twisted. The magnetic flux tubes which formed on a solar surface of the sunspots of active region were twisted in one direction. The azimuthal field components of both sunspots were of like sign. Electric currents which generated to rotation and twisting of magnetic flux tubes were directed in one direction. Electric currents and azimuthal components of magnetic and velocity fields of both sunspots amount to the maximum on December 11, 2006. At the start of X3.4 flare their values became equal to zero.

On Possible Photometric Manifestation of Magnetic Field in Cyg X-1

E.A. Karitskaya, N.G. Bochkarev

The influence of recently detected magnetic field of O9.7 Iab supergiant component of Cyg X-1 X-ray binary system on its atmosphere was considered.
In the frame of the simplest model (the unipolar cylindrically symmetric circum-polar magnetic spot model in static approximation with neglect of the Lorentz force component related to the force line curvature) the magnetic pressure is found to be comparable with model atmosphere gas and radiative pressure, exceeding them in the area surrounding the magnetic poles. It should lead to formation of bright spots on the star surface. The upper estimation of the relative brightness $\Delta I / I \simeq +0.25$ of magnetic spot near $5000\,\AA$ on the Cyg X-1 optical component.
The dipolar or quadrupolar magnetic field can create large size bright spots which can be studied by the ground-based optical photometry. In the case of magnetic field, inclined to the stellar rotation axis the suspected variability may achieve about 1%. The field of higher multipolar configuration (produced by dynamo) can form the spots of lesser size and may be revealed only by space telescopes. Besides, the spots may be revealed in spectral line profile variability. The spot observation can be considered as an independent instrument of magnetic field analysis for O-supergiants such as in Cyg X-1.

Advances in Spectropolarimetric Diagnostics of the Magnetization of the Quiet Sun Atmosphere

N.G. Shchukina, J. Trujillo Bueno

The most powerful tool for the diagnostics of magnetic fields in the atmospheres of the Sun and of other stars is the interpretation of spectropolarimetric observations. Polarization in spectral lines can be induced and modified by several physical mechanisms. In the quiet Sun the most important ones are the Zeeman effect, anisotropic radiation pumping, and the Hanle effect. Here we present a brief review of the study of the magnetization of the quiet Sun atmosphere carried out over the last 10 year using both ground-based telescopes, the HINODE space telescope, and the balloon-borne telescope SUNRISE. We pay particular attention to three-dimensional radiative transfer investigations of the Hanle effect both in the atomic and molecular lines and the Zeeman effect in Fe I lines and Si I 1082.7 nm line. We conclude that the bulk of the quiet solar photosphere is significantly magnetized, due to the ubiquitous presence of an unresolved magnetic field with an average strength $\langle B \rangle {\approx} 130$ G. Such a “hidden” field could perhaps provide the clue for understanding how the outer solar atmosphere is energized. In fact, the ensuing magnetic energy density is so significant that the energy flux turns out to be substantially larger than that required to balance the chromospheric energy losses.

Magnetic Fields in Cataclysmic Variables

I.L. Andronov

A review on theoretical and observational properties is presented. Depending on the strength of magnetic field of the white dwarf and characteristics of the binary system, there are at least two dosens of different physical mechanisms determining structure and evolution of these objects. Different combinations of mechanisms lead to a wide variety of observational appearance and corresponding sub-types. Generally the accretor is a white dwarf, and a donor is a red dwarf secondary, which fills it's Roche lobe. Sometimes the secondary has a mass smaller the a Hayashi one and thus is a sub-stellar object (WZ Sge). With an increasing influence of magnetic field onto accretion, there is an extended sequence of "non-magnetic" dwarf novae (U Gem, Z Cam, SS Cyg, SU UMa), "magnetic" dwarf novae (DO Dra, sometimes erroneously called YY Dra), outbursting intermediate polars (EX Hya), intermediate polars (FO Aqr), spinning up asynchronous polars (V1432 Aql), spinning down asynchronous polars (BY Cam, V1500 Cyg), classical polars - long-period (AM Her) and short-period (AN UMa). We also discuss different accretion structures in a presence of magnetic field - stream, arcs, disks, columns. Special attention is paid to polarization and spectra of cyclotron emission of accretion columns.

Observations with large telescopes

S. Fabrika

Massive stars are very important objects in modern astrophysics, they produce cosmic metals, neutron stars and black holes in Supernova explosions, they change interstellar medium and influence upon evolution of galaxies.
I will talk about observations of massive stars in the Galaxy and external galaxies with large optical telescopes: the Russian telescope BTA, the European VLT telescopes (Paranal, Chile), the Japaness Subaru telescope (Mauna Kea, Hawaii), and the Hubble Space Telescope. I will discuss observations of the most massive stars - Luminous Blue Variables and the best black hole candidates - Ultraluminous X-ray Sources (the optical counterparts).

Space Laboratory to Study Accretion in Magnetic Cataclysmic Variables: The Case of Exotic Newly-Discovered Eclipsing Polar OTJ 071126+440405

I.L. Andronov, Y. Kim, K.A. Antoniuk, V.V. Breus, L.L. Chinarova, P. Dubovsky, W. Han, S.V. Kolesnikov, I. Kudzej, A. Oksanen, A.V. Ryabov, N.M. Shakhovskoy, J.N. Yoon, E.I. Zhuzhulina

Self-consistent mathematical model of the exotic object OTJ 071126+440405= CSS 081231:071126+440405 is discussed. The system was discovered as a polar at the New year night 31.12.2008/01.01.2009 by D.Denisenko (VSNET Circ), and we have initiated an international campaign of photometric and polarimetric observations of this object (totally ~80 runs in Ukraine, Korea, Slovakia, Finland, USA). This work is a part of the "Inter-Longitude Astronomy" (ILA) project on monitoring of variable stars of different classes (Andronov et al., 2003). Results of this campaign will be published separately (Andronov et al., 2009). Here we present the geometrical and physical model of the system. In an addition to the usual assumption that cataclysmic variables contain a Roche-lobe filling red dwarf and an accreting white dwarf, we propose an interpretation of three types of the brightness minima, as the eclipses by the red dwarf, white dwarf and the accretion column itself (self-eclipse). In the low luminosity state, when the accretion rate is suggested to vanish, a "quiescence" is observed at the light curve, i.e. the optical flux comes from the illuminated secondary star and the non-accreting side of the white dwarf. When the accretion column becomes visible, the light curve exhibits a `hump" interrupted by the main eclipse by the red dwarf. In the "intermediate" luminosity state, the brightness increases at all phases, however, the main hump shifts to smaller phases and an additional minimum (self-eclipse) is observed. In this state, the emitting accreting region becomes larger, and is not significantly eclipsed by the white dwarf. The phase difference between the preliminary and main eclipses is smaller than in the high luminosity state, what is interpreted by the dependence of the position of the thread point, where magnetic field of the white dwarf captures the (initially ballistic) accretion stream. At the high state, the thread point approaches the cross-section of the ballistic stream with the magnetic axis, whereas at the intermediate state, the thread point may lie from 70% to 100% of the distance between the white dwarf and the inner Lagrangian point. As the ballistic trajectory nearly coincides with the magnetic field lines near the inner Lagrangian point, this argues for an "energetically optimal" orientation of the magnetic axis. As the system is of ~20 mag at minimum, no spectral observations were made to determine parameters of the red dwarf. From the statistical relationship, the mass of the red dwarf is estimated to be ~0.165 solar masses, for the white dwarf (from eclipse duration) - from 0.5 to 1.76 solar masses. As the system resembles ER UMa in some characteristics, the lower value may be assumed. The inclination of the system and other physical parameters are estimated. The object is an excellent laboratory to study multiple physical processes in the magnetic systems.

On the Possible Mechanism of the Solar Coronal Heating

V.M. Efimenko

Efimenko [1], Efimenko and Tokii [2] studied variations in the parameters of the near-surface plasma layers of the solar atmosphere with distance from the Sun’s surface using the dipolar approximation for the general magnetic field and taking into account the non-uniformity of the rotation (tachocline) of the uniformly magnetized Sun, as well as the contribution of external plasma layers (chromosphere and corona). A finite value of the electrical conductivity was assumed. In seeking analytical solutions, we adopted an isothermic approximation for all plasma layers.
Thus, analytical solutions have been obtained for the distributions of electric potentials and fields in plasma layers of the Sun due to the non-uniformity of its rotation. The obtained solutions yielded estimates of the contribution of the near-surface atmospheric layers from currents induced by non-uniformity of the Sun’s rotation to heating.
The estimates have shown that taking into account the turbulent conductivity leads to an increase in the temperature of the corona layer from 2∙106 K to 5∙106 K and in the distance from the Sun’s center to the maximum heating zone from 7.03∙108 m to 7.2∙108 m.
[1] Efimenko, V.M. Vestnik Kiev. Un-ta. Astronomiya, 2010, no. 46, p. 4.
[2] Efimenko, V.M. and Tokii, V.V., Izv. Krym. Astrofiz. Obs., 2010, vol. 106, no. 1, p. 232.

Variation of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 3227 nucleus spectral characteristics in 1971–2009

I.F. Bikmaev, I.I. Pronik, L.M. Sharipova

Variations of emission lines characteristics of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 3227 nucleus: equivalent widths (EW λ), relative intensities, Balmer line profiles obtained in April 2009 with the 1.5-m Russian-Turkish telescope (RTT-150) and data published in the literature were used. Results of the comparative analysis showed the decreasing of the galaxy nucleus total activity during more than 30 years.

The influence of magnetic spots on the total polarization in planetary system HD189733

K. Frantseva, N. Kostogryz, T. Yakobchuk

In the present work the polarization of the transit exoplanet systems during the planet’s transit is considered. The Monte Carlo simulations of polarimetric effects in HD 189733 were carried out, and it was found that the passage of a planet across the disk of the star two maxima of polarization degree at the limb of ∼7% appear in U-filter. It is shown that the polarization occuring in the system while transit is of the same order as the previously known from theoretical study in the planet’s atmosphere. It is shown that the appearance of spots on the surface of the star introduce an additional background to the degree of polarization of ∼ 3×10−6 and affects the shape of the degree of polarization.

Solar Service KRIM and Daily Measurements of Relative Sunspot Number in CrAO

A.V. Borisenko

The Solar Service KRIM project is the Internet service provided the online access to the solar archive of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory with advanced search. Web service contains seven types of solar data: intensity sunspot magnetic fields, He-1083nm images, daily relative sunspot numbers, H-alpha images, mean magnetic field of the Sun, synoptic maps, and multichannel radio data. Structure and software implementation of the Solar Service KRIM are described (http://swc.crao.crimea.ua).
It has been concluded based on the analysis of relative sunspot numbers from Crimean, Mitaka, and Kanzelhohe observatories, Marshall Space Flight Center NASA that the 24 solar cycle should be weaker than the 23 solar cycle. This suggests that the global Earth climate becomes colder.

Turbulent process in the active and quiet regions of the solar photosphere

L.V. Kozak, R.I. Kostik, O.K. Cheremnykh

In the frame of the presented work the range of different methods for the analysis of characteristics of turbulent processes in the active and quiet regions of the solar photosphere has been used. The changes of fluctuations distribution function and its moments were analyzed, spectral analysis was carried out.
It was found out from the observations of active region carried out with the 70-cm vacuum tower telescope VTT in Isanie (Tenerife Island, Spain) that the turbulent processes in the sun photosphere are characterized by two different spectra of turbulence. The first one of them is well known Kolmohorov spectrum, which describes the plasma with zero mean magnetic field. The second one is the Kraichnan spectrum with a different from zero mean magnetic field. Transition from one spectrum type to another one occurs at scale of 3 Mm. For the quiet region of the solar photosphere the Kolmohorov spectrum was obtained.
We have to note that the scale 3 Mm corresponds to one of mesogranulation and testifies about non-zero mean magnetic fields for the consideration of regions exceeding the granulation in active regions of the photosphere. Besides, this clears the possibility of appearance of self-organizing magnetic plasma structures such as spots, active regions and complexes of activity.
The work is done in the frame of complex program of NAS of Ukraine on space researches for 2012-1016, and under a partial support of the grant No. F 53.2/039.

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